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Chemistry Syllabus / Course Outlines Associate Degree in Science (ADP) Sargodha University


Chemistry- I

(Outlines of Tests)

Paper-A: Physical Chemistry (Written) :

40 Marks

Paper-B: Inorganic Chemistry (Written) :

40 Marks

Paper-C: Physical Chemistry &  Inorganic Chemistry (Practical-I)  

10+10=20 Marks

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

Paper A:    Physical Chemistry       Marks: 40

It is compulsory to attempt at least TWO questions from each section.

Section -I

 Elementary Mathematics:

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Logarithmic, exponential and trignometric functions, differentiation of elementary functions, methods of differentiation & integration, significance of differentiation & integration.

Physical States of Matter:

Weightage of marks                                                                                        6

Gases: (van der Waal’s equation, critical phenomena, critical values of T, P &V, liquification of gases, molecular collisions, collision diameter, mean free path); Liquids: (viscosity, parachor value, refractive index, molar refraction and its applications. Dipole moment; Solids: unit cells, Bragg crystal analysis, crystal structure of NaCl, powder method of crystal structure analysis.

Atomic Structure

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

de Brogile equation, Schrödinger wave equation and it’s solution for particle in 1D box, equantization concept, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Puali’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule.

Chemical Thermodynamics

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

First law of thermodynamics, state functions, isothermal and adiabatic processes in ideal gases, heat capacity, reversible and irreversible processes. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes, second law of thermodynamics, change of entropy with change in T, P &V.

Section- II

Chemical Equilibrium:

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

 Law of mass action, equilibrium constant (Kc), relationship between Kc, Kp, Kx and Ka, Le Chaterlier’s principle


Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

 Composition, ideal and non-ideal solutions. Raoult’s law, colligative properties, ebullioscopy, cryoscopy, osmotic pressure, distillation and concept of azeotropes.

Chemical Kinetics

Weightage of marks                                                                                        5

Zero, first and second order reactions, Arrhenius equation, activation energy, Lindermann’s mechanism, collision theory and transition state theory.


 Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Conductance, dependence of conductance on the nature of solvent and temperature, Kohlrausch’s law and its applications, measurement of conductance, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of dissociation.

Surface Phenomena and Colloids

Weightage of marks                                                                                        5

 Physisorption and chemisorption, isotherms; types, properties, preparation and applications of colloids.

Recommended Books

  1.  Maron S. H. and Jerome, B. “Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry” Macruthan Publishing co. Inc. New York (2016).
  2. Atkins P.W. and Clugston, M. J. “Principles of Physical Chemistry’ Pitam Publishing Company. NY (2015).
  3. Moore, W.J., “Physical Chemistry”, 5th Longmans Publishers, NY (1972).
  4. Jones, M., “Elements of Physical Chemistry” 3rd Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company Inc., NY (2014).
  5. Adamson, A. W., “Understanding Physical Chemistry” 3rd Benjamin Cummings Publishing Company Inc. NY (2015).
  6. Heald, C. and Smith, A.C.K. “Applied Physical Chemistry” MacMillan UK (1973).
  7. Bhatti, H.N. and K. Hussain, “Principles of Physical Chemistry”; Carvan Book House, Lahore (2005).
  8. Levitt, B.P., “Findlay’s Practical Physical Chemistry”. 9th Longman, London (1973).
  9. Das, R.C. and B. Behera, “Experimental Physical Chemistry”, Tata McGraw Hill, Delhi (2003).
  10. Crocleford, H.D., H.W. Biard, F.W. Getzen & J.W. Nowell, “Laboratory Manual of Physical Chemistry”, 2nd, John Wiley & Sons, London (1975).

Paper-B: Inorganic Chemistry             Marks: 40

It is compulsory to attempt at least TWO questions from each section.


Periodic Table and Periodicity of Properties

Weightage of marks                                                                                              3

Modern periodic table, group trends and periodic properties, atomic & ionic radii, ionization potentials, electron affinities and electronegativities; redox potential, electrochemical series and its applications; corrosion and electroplating.

Acid Base Equilibria

Weightage of marks                                                                                              4

Acids and bases, relative strengths of acids, pH, pKa, pKb, Soft and hard acid-base (SHAB) concept: principle & applications. Buffers: types, preparation, capacity and applications.  Indicators: acid-base, redox and adsorption. Solubility product, common ion effect and applications.

Physical Techniques in Inorganic Chemistry

      Weightage of marks                                                                                              4

Diffraction methods (X-ray and Neutron diffractions)

Chemical analysis (Atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, elemental analysis and thermal analysis).

Chemical Bonding

      Weightage of marks                                                                                              6

Nature of a bond, hybridization, valence bond theory (VBT), the concept of resonance, molecular orbital theory (MOT), valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory. Special types of bonds, such as, metallic bonds, hydrogen bonding, bent bond, ion-dipole-dipole bond, ion induced-dipole bond.

Alkali & Alkaline Earth Metals

      Weightage of marks                                                                                              3

General characteristics and important compounds of elements of group IA & group IIA. Diagonal relationships between these elements.


Chemistry of p-Block Elements

Weightag of marks                                                                                              12

 Introduction to p-block elements

Group IIIA Elements: Group trends (physical properties, atomic sizes & chemical reactivity), comparison of boron with silicon, compounds of boron: boranes.

Group IVA Elements: Group trends (physical properties, atomic sizes & chemical reactivity), allotropic forms of C: graphite, diamond and fullerene (synthesis, properties & structure), carbides (classification, preparation, properties and uses). Compounds of Ge, Sn and Pb. Silicates (structural aspects, classification and applications), silicones (structural aspects, classification and applications); production of pure Si chips for solar energy cells, silicides. 

Group VA Elements: Group trends (physical properties, atomic sizes & chemical reactivity); nitrides, phosphides, arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides, nitrogen cycle, phosphazenes, oxoacids of N and P.

Group VIA Elements: Group trends (physical & chemical properties), oxoacids and their salts thionic acids, peroxyacids of S. Oxoacids of Se and Te.

Group VIIA Elements (Halogens): Group trends, physical and chemical properties, haloacids.

Group VIIIA Elements (Noble gases): Discovery, separation and isolation, general chemistry of inert gases, xenon fluorides.

Chemistry of d-Block Elements

      Weightage of marks                                                                                              8

Electronic configuration, nomenclature, characteristics and nature of bonding in coordination complexes. Werner’s theory, VBT, MOT and CFT for coordination compounds. Isomerism in coordination compounds. Chelates: classification and applications. Medicinal, industrial and agricultural applications of coordination compounds.

Recommended Books (Inorganic Chemistry)

  1. Iqbal, M.Z., “Text Book of Inorganic Chemistry” Ilmi Kitab Khana, Revised Edition (2008).
  2. Shaheen, M.A, Hazoor Ahmad, Jilani’s “Concise Inorganic Chemistry” Jilani Notes, Sargodha, Lahore (2018)
  3. Albert, C.F., Wilkinson G. and Gaus, P.L. “Basic Inorganic Chemistry” 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NY (2010).
  4. Lee, J.D., “Concise Inorganic Chemistry” 5th Edition, Chapman & Hall, UK (2014).
  5. Jolly, W.L., “Modern Inorganic Chemistry” 2nd Edition McGraw Hill, NY (2015).
  6. Shriver, D.F., Atkins P.W. and Langord, C.H. “Inorganic Chemistry” 2nd Edition, Oxford Press, UK (2016).
  7. Housecroft, E. and Sharpe, A.G., “Inorganic Chemistry” 3rd Edition, Longman, NY (2015).
  8. Rayner-Canham, G. “Descriptive Inorganic Chemistry” W.H. Freeman & Co. UK (2014).
  9. Jeffery, G.H., Bassett, J., Mendham, J. and Denney, R.C. “Vogel’s Textbooks of Quantitative Chemical Analysis” 5th Edition, Benjamin-Cummings, NY (1989).
  10. Vogel, A.I, “A Text Book of Macro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis” Longman Green & Co. NY (1995).
  11. Skoog, D.A., West, D. M. and Holler, F.J. “Analytical Chemistry” 6th Edition Saunders College Publications, UK (1994).
  12. Graham, H and Man, H. “Chemistry in Context” 5th Edition, Thomas Nelson Ltd. U.K. (2000).

Paper-C: Physical Chemistry & Inorganic Chemistry (Practical-I)  20 Marks

 Physical Chemistry:  10 Marks

  1. Determination of surface tension and Parachor value by stalagmometer.
  2. Determination of % composition of liquid solutions by surface tension measurement.
  3. Determination of viscosity and Rhechor value of liquids by viscosity measurement.
  4. Determination of % composition of liquid solutions viscometrically.
  5. Determination of refractive index and molar refractivity by refractometer.
  6. Determination of % composition of liquid solutions by refractive index measurements.
  7. Determination of heat of solution by solubility method.
  8. Determination of heat of neutralization of an acid with a base.
  9. A kinetic study of acid hydrolysis of EtOAc.
  10. Kinetic study of saponification of EtOAc.
  11. Determination of molecular weight of a compound by elevation in boiling point (ebullioscopic method).
  12. Determination of molecular weight of a compound by lowering of freezing point (the cryoscopic method).
  13. Determination of equilibrium constant of KI + I2  →  
  14. Conductometric titration of strong acid and strong base.

Recommended Books (Physical Chemistry, Practical)        

  1. Crockford, H. D.; J. IV Nowell; H. W Baird and F. W. Getzen. 1976. “Laboratory Manual of Physical Chemistry” John Wiley and Sons (2nd Ed.) England.
  2. Shaheen, M.A., 2017) Jilani “Manual of Practical Chemistry Laboratory” Vol-I for BS/B.Sc. Students, Jilani Notes, Sargodha, Lahore-Pakistan.
  3. Das R. C. and B. Bahera. 1984. “Experimental Physical Chemistry” Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited USA.
  4. Levitt B. P. 1972. “Findlay’s Practical Physical Chemistry” Longman Group Limited (9th Ed.) USA.

Inorganic Chemistry               10 Marks

  1. Qualitative analysis of four radicals (cations and anions) for salt mixture.
  2. Chromatographic separation of cations.
  3. Determination of total hardness of water using EDTA.
  4. Estimation of Mn(II) using EDTA.
  5. Estimation of Cu(II) iodometrically.
  6. Determination of S2O3
  7. Determination of ferricyanide ([Fe(CN)6]2-) using KI solution.
  8. Determination of Cl by Volhard’s and Mohr’s methods.
  9. Estimation of Cl using adsorption (Fluorescein) indicator.
  10. Estimation of Br using adsorption (Eosin) indicator.
  11. Estimation of %age of Fe2+ in the Mohr’s salt using KMnO4 solution.
  12. Percentage determination of Fe3+ in ferric alum using KMnO4
  13. Determination of purity of commercial potassium oxalate [K2(COO)2] using KMnO4
  14. Estimation of Fe2+ using K2Cr2O7

 Recommended Books (Inorganic Chemistry, Practical)

  1. Shaheen, M.A., (2017) Jilani, “Manual of Practical Chemistry” Vol-II for BS/BSc Students, Jilani Notes, Sargodha, Lahore-Pakistan.
  2. Jefferey, G. H.; Bassett, Menclham, J. and Denney, R. C. (2007). “Vogel’s TexBook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis” Benjamin Cummings (5th Ed) UK.
  3. Vogel, A. I. A. (1995). “Text Book of Macro and Semi-micro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis” Longamn Green & Co England.
  4. Skoog, D. A.; West, D. M. and. Holler, F. J. (1994). “Analytical Chemistry” Saunders College Publications (6th Ed).
  5. Pass, G., Sutcliffe, II. (1975). “Practical Inorganic Chemistry: Preparations, Reactions and Instrumental Methods” 2nd Ed., Chapman and Hall England.


Chemistry- II

(Outlines of Tests)

Paper-A: Organic Chemistry (Written) :

40 Marks

Paper-B: Applied Chemistry (Written) :

40 Marks

Paper-C: Organic Chemistry &  Applied  Chemistry (Practical-II)

10+10=20 Marks

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

 Paper A:    Organic Chemistry     Marks: 40

 It is compulsory to attempt at least TWO questions from each section.

Section- I

 Basic Concepts

Weightage of marks                                                                                        3

Atomic, molecular and hybrid orbitals; multiple localized and delocalized bonds; properties of bonds, inductive effect (-I, +I), dipole moment. The concept of resonance, rules for resonance; resonance energy; steric inhibition of resonance; hyperconjugation; resonance effect (-R, +R); hydrogen bonding; tautomerism (keto-enol).


Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Classification of hydrocarbons. Nomenclature, methods of preparations, physical characteristics and chemical reactions of alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes and alkynes. Source of aromatic hydrocarbons. Structure of benzene and the concept of aromaticity. Aromatic electrophilic substitution reactions.


Weightage of marks                                                                                        5

Conformational analysis of ethane (C2H6) and butane (C4H10). Optical isomerism: optical activity, chiral carbon atom and optical isomerism. Geometrical (cis/trans) isomerism. Relative (D/L) and absolute (R/S) configuration. Creation of chiral carbon and racemization; resolution of racemic mixture. Elements of symmetry; optical isomerism in compounds containing one or two asymmetric carbon atoms (concept of enatiomerism & diasteroisomerism); designation of absolute configuration (CIP rule).

 Alkyl Halides

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Nomenclature, methods of preparation and chemical reactions with special reference to nucleophilic substitution (SN2 & SN1) and elimination reactions (E2 & E1) of alkyl halides. Preparations, structure and synthetic applications of Grignard’s reagents.

 The Hydroxyl group and Ethers

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Nature of hydroxyl group in alcohols and phenols.

Alcohols: Classification and nomenclature of alcohols; methods of preparation and chemical reactions of alcohols; distinction between 1°, 2° and 3° alcohols; Polyhydric alcohols.  

Phenols: Methods of preparation & chemical reactions of phenols; acidity of phenols; Ethers: Methods of preparation (Williamson’s synthesis) and reactions of ethers.

 Section- II

The Carbonyl Group

Weightage of marks                                                                                        5

Nature of carbonyl group and its reactivity; nomenclature, methods of preparation & chemical reactions of aldehydes and ketones; distinction between aldehydes and ketones; Aldol reactions (self & cross).

Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives

Weightage of marks                                                                                        6

Nomenclature, methods of preparation and chemical reactions of carboxylic acids; strength (pKa) of carboxylic acids and the factors affecting it. Formation and hydrolysis of acid anhydrides, acid amides, acid halides and esters including glycerides. Introduction to amino acids.

  Nitrogen Compounds: Amines:

Weightage of marks                                                                                        5

Classification, nomenclature, methods of preparation and chemical reactions of amines; distinction between 1°, 2° and 3° amines. Preparation and reactions of aniline. Basicity of aliphatic and aromatic amines and factors affecting it. Diazzonium salts and their synthetic applications.

 Bio-molecules and Simple Heterocycels

Weightage of marks                                                                                        4

Importance, nomenclature, properties, synthesis and reactions of simple heterocycles (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids).

 Recommended Books (Organic Chemistry)

  1.  Younas, M., “Text Book of Organic Chemistry” Ilmi Kutab Khana, Lahore (2006).
  2. Rehman, A., “Text Book of Organic Chemistry” Caravan Book House, Lahore (2006).
  3. March, J., “Advanced Organic Chemistry” Wiley, New York (1992).
  4. Pine, S. H., “Organic Chemistry” McGraw-Hill, New York (1987).
  5. Sykes, P., A “Guide Book to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry” Prentice Hall (1999).
  6. Younas, M., “Organic Spectroscopy” A. H. Publisher, Lahore (2006).
  7. Solomons, T. W. G., “Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry” Wiley, New York (1999).
  8. Kemp, W., “Organic Spectroscopy” Macmillan, London (1990).
  9. Chughtai, F. A., “Organic Reactions” Majid Book Depot, Lahore/Faisalabad (1995).
  10. Vogel, A. I., “A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry” Prentice Hall (1996).
  11. Clarke, H. T. and D. Haynes. “A Hand Book of Organic Analysis” Edward Arnold, London (1947).
  12. Mann, F. G and B. C. Saunders. “Practical Organic Chemistry” Longman, London (1978).
  13. Shriner, R. L., D.Y. Curtin, R.C. Fuson, and T.C. Morrill, “The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds” Wiley, New York (1997).
  14. Rehman, A., “Experimental Organic Chemistry” The Caravan Book House, Lahore (2006).
  15. Morrison R. T. and R.N. Boyd, “Organic Chemistry” Allyn and Bacon, London (1987).

Paper B: Applied Chemistry         40 Marks

It is compulsory to attempt at least TWO questions from each section.


Introduction to Spectroscopy

 Weightage of marks                                                                                              5

Electromagnetic radiations (EMR); spectral bands; principle, instrumentation, sample handling and applications of IR & UV/Vis spectroscopy.

Nuclear Chemistry

Weightage of marks                                                                                              5

Radioactivity; stability of nuclei, nuclear transformation, measurement of nuclear radiation, nuclear reactions, fission and fusion, nuclear reactor, uses of radioisotopes, nuclear hazards and safety measures.

Separation Techniques

Weightage of marks                                                                                                    4

General introduction and applications of solvent-extraction and chromatographic techniques, such as, paper, ion-exchange and column-chromatography.

 Modern Materials

 Weightage of marks                                                                                              6

Introduction to liquid crystals, inorganic polymers, ceramics, fiber glass, thin films, semiconductors and composite materials.


Environmental Chemistry

Weightage of marks                                                                                              8

 Introduction to environment and its segments, Green House effect and global warming; acid rain and its impact on environment. Sources of pollution (soil, air and water), heavy metal pollution in water bodies; toxicity of pollutants.

Evaluation of analytical data

Weightage of marks                                                                                              6

Concepts of mean, mode, median, accuracy & precision; determinate and indeterminate errors, significant figures, rounding off, standard deviation, relative standard deviation. Application of mean, median, mode, rounding off significant figures and standard deviation in chemistry.

Chemical Industries

Weightage of marks                                                                                        6

Metallurgies of Cu, Fe and Al; fertilizers (urea & phosphate); industries (paper and sugar).

Recommended Books

  1. Voet, D. R and Voet, J. G. “Biochemistry” John Wiley & Sons, NY (2001).
  2. Kent, J.A. Riegal’s “Handbook of Industrial Chemistry” CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi (1997).
  3. Arnikar, H.J. “Nuclear Chemistry. Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd. (1998).
  4. Gurdeep R. “Advanced Physical Chemistry”, Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd. Delhi (2002).
  5. Maeder, M. and Neuhold, Y-M. “Practical Data Analysis in Chemistry” Elsevier UK (2007).
  6. Younas, M., “Organic Spectroscopy” A. H. Publisher, Lahore (2005).

Paper C:  Applied Chemistry & Organic Chemistry (Practical-II)   Marks: 20 (10+10)

Organic Chemistry    Marks 10

  1.  Qualitative organic analysis: systematic identification of organic compounds containing groups like COOH and its derivatives, OH, NH2 and C=O.
  2. Purification techniques (solvent extraction, distillation and recrystallization etc.)
  3. Preparation of simple organic compounds (benzoic acid, ethyl benzoate, tribromophenol, aspirin and nitrobenzene).

Recommended Books (Organic Chemistry)

  1. Vogel, A.I. “A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry” Longman, London (2005).
  2. Shaheen, M. A., Paracha, R. N, Jilani, “Manual of Practical Chemistry” Vol.III, Jilani Notes, Sargodha, (2016).
  3. Mann, F.G and Saunders B.C. “Practical Organic Chemistry” Longman, London (2007).
  4. Shriner, R.L., Curtin, D.Y. Fuson, R.C. and Morrill, T.C. “The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds” Wiley, NY (2003).

Applied Chemistry      Marks 10

  1. Percentage determination of Ba2+ in Ba(NO3)2 by gravimetric method.
  2. Gravimetric determination of Ni2+.
  3. Estimation the glucose content in a sample by titration method.
  4. Determination of adsorption parameters using Langmuir adsorption isotherm of AcOH on charcoal.
  5. To determine the wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax) of compounds using spectrophotometer.
  6. To determine the concentration of Cr3+ in water sample by using spectrophotometer.
  7. To determine the concentration of Mn2+ in water sample by using spectrophotometer.
  8. To determine the concentration of the sucrose, glucose and dextrose in samples by using polarimeter.
  9. To determine the Iodine value of the oil and fat.
  10. Identification Al3+, Cr3+ and Fe3+ in samples by TLC.
  11. Determine the partition coefficient of I2 between water and CCl4.
  12. Qualitative analysis of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates.


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