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|Paper-A: Physical Geography;||70|
|Paper-B: Human & Regional Geography;||70|
|Paper-C: Map Work and Practical;||60|
|Total Marks: 200|
The Distribution of marks for the Map Work and Practical Exam shall be as follow.
|Record of Map work||10|
Examination in Lab Work, Field Survey and Field Report shall be conducted during the Practical Examination by the same Examiners.
Note:- A minimum of sixty practicals of 3 hours each shall be required in two years.(30 practicals each year). Map Work & Practical Examination will spread over two days.
DETAILS OF COURSES
PAPER-A PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
The Earth and its origin
The universe: the solar system and the Earth. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revolution, composition and structure, distribution of land and water.
Introduction to Geological time scale.
Composition and structure of atmosphere, atmospheric temperature and pressure, winds and global circulation air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather), cyclones and weather disturbance. Hydrological Cycle, atmospheric moisture and precipitation, climatic classification: Koppen’s classification with special reference to the following types: Af, Am, Bsh, Csa and DF. Atmospheric pollution.
Internal structure of the Earth, Rocks- origin, formation and types (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic), plate tectonics, mountain building , geomorphic processes – internal and external, earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering , mass wasting, erosion and deposition, cycle of erosion; landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.
Configuration of ocean floor, ocean deposits, composition, temperature, and salinity of ocean water, movements of the ocean water; waves, currents and tides.
|Taylor||(1993||Integrated Physical Geography, London; Longman|
|Thornbury,W||1991)||Principles of Geogmorphology, New York, John Valley.|
|Mcllveen, I.F.R||1991)||Fundemental of Weather and Climate London; Champan & Hall|
|Monkhouse, F.J||(1988)||Principals of Physical Geography, London; Holder & Stoughton.|
|Strahler, A.H. & Strahler. A.N.||(1982)||Modern Physical Geogrpahy, 4th Ed. New York, John Wiley.|
|Miller, E.W.||(1985)||Physical Geography, Columbus; Charles E.Merril.|
|Kimng, C.A.M||(1980)||Physical Geography, Oxford; Basil Blackwell.|
|Treqartha, G. Robinson,A.H Hammond, E.H.||(1967)||Physical elements of Geography 5th Ed. New York; McGraw Hill|
|de Blij, H.J. & M||(1993)||Physical Geography of the Global Environment New York; John Wiley.|
PAPER-B HUMAN AND REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
PART-I: Human Geography
Man environment Interaction.
Themes of Environmental Determinism, Possiblism and Perception.
Growth and composition (age and sex structure), population change, natural increase and migration and distribution.
Rural and urban location form and function of settlements, Central place Theory.Economics Activity.
Location Characteristics of primary, secondary , tertiary, quarternary and quinary activities.
Ecosystem and environmental degradation.
PART-II: REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
Study of South Asia with special emphisis on Pakistan under the heading recourse base (physical human and economics) Transport, trade and international relation.
Note:- There will be two parts in paper B, the student will be required to attend at least two questions from each Part. Each question will carry equal marks.
Goudie, A. (1994) The human impact on the Natural Environment oxford; Blacksell.
Horne, B. (1993) the integrated human geography, London; Longman.
Gregory, D.& Nalford, R. (1992) Horizons in Human Geography London, Macmillan
Barrett, H. (1992) Population Geography, London; Longman.
Bradnock, R.W. (1992) Hand Book of South Asia London.
Kureshy, K.U.(1986) Geography of Pakistan Lahore, Hafeez Press.
Bradford, M.G. and Kent, W.A. (1986) Human Geography O.U.P.
Rubenstein, J.M. Bacon.R.S (1983) The Cultural Landscape; An introduction to human Geography New Delhi prentice Haees.
Deblij H.J. (1982) Human Geography, New York, John Wiley.
Bradnock, R.W. (1982) Agricultural Change in South Asia, London, John Murray.
Johnson. B.L.C(1979)Pakistan, London, Heinemann.
Spate, O.H.K. and Learmonth, A.T.A (1986) India and Pakistan, London, Methuen.
De Blij. H.J. (1986) Human Geography cultural 5th Ed. New York, John Wiley.
PAPER-C MAP WORK AND PRACTICAL
Study of Maps:
- Types of maps.
- Scales- plain, diagonal, comparative and their uses.
Methods of representation of relief. Exercises and drawing of composite contour maps with the help of given data and information.
- Topographical maps.
- Aerial Photographs and introduction to Remote Sensing.
- Weather maps of Pakistan
Map projection: General principles, classification, choice of projection, merits and demerits, construction of practical and simple graphic methods of the following projections.
- Cylindrical Simple and Equal Area and Merator’s (with table).
- Zenithal: Gnomonic, Stereographic and Orthographic (polar cases).
- Conical case and two standard parallel.
Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography: methods of data collection, study of frequency distribution, averages (mean, median and mode), mean Deviation, and Standard Deviation.
Preparation of distributional maps with the help of symbols, line, bars, shade, dots, circles.
instrumental surveying: making of plans with the help of chain, plane table and prismatic compass.
Field report based on the study of geographical aspects of a selected area / activity.
Dent,B.D. (1993) Cartography Thematic Maps Design oxford, WCB.
Benton Jr.A.R. (1992) Elements of Plane Surveying New York, McGraw Hill.
Capmbell, J. (1990) Introduction to Cartography oxford WCB.
Briggs, K. (1989) Practical Geography, London, Hodder and Stoughton.
Robinson. A.h. (1988) Elements of Cartography, New York, John Wiley.
Singh R.L. (1979) Elements of Practical Geography, New Delhi, Kalyani Publishers.
Ahmad.K.S. (1973) Map Production Lahore, Publishers United.
Bygott, J. (1969) An introduction to map work and practical geography London University Tutorial press.
Monkhouse F.J (1971) Maps and Diagrams, (Third Ed.) London, Methuen & Co.
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