UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
(Outlines of Tests)
Paper – I
Western Political Thought:
Paper – II
Muslim Political Thought and Institutions:
Paper – III
Comparative and Developmental Politics:
Paper – IV
Paper – V
Ideology and Dynamics of Politics in Pakistan:
(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)
Paper – I, Western Political Thought
This course is designed to provide a grounding in evolution of Western Political Thought from Greek to the modern period, with a focus on the political thought of most representative thinkers of major political movements.
- Nature of Greek Political Thought: Socrates, Plato Aristotle.
- Conflict between Church & State; The Conciliary theory of Church Government.
- Political thought of Machiavelli, Bodin, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau, Montesqieu Hume, Burke.
- Utilitarians: Bentham, J.S. Mill.
- Kant, Hegel and T.H. Green
- Rise of Democratic Socialism.
- Communism: Karl Marx: Development of Communism after Marx, Lenin, Stalin, Mao-Tse-Tung.
- Faccism and National Socialism.
- Georg H. Saleive & Thomas L. Thorson A History of Political Theory, Driden ressHinsdale, Ichinois, 1973.
- William Ebenstein Modern Political Thought: The Great Issues, NewYork, Holt, Rinchart and Winston, 1960.
- William Ebenstein Political Thought in Perspective, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1957.
- Harold Laski Political Thought in England from to Bentham;London
- Herrie H. Grec Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao-Tse-Tung; Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1953. (Relevant Chapters).
- Earnest Barker Political thought of Plato and Aristotle New York,1962.
- William A. Dunning History of Political Theories: New York, Macmillan,1957.
- Judd Harmon Political thought from Plato to the Present: New YorkMcGraw-Hill, 1964.
- Otto Gierke Political Theories of the Middle Ages: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1913(also available in a recent paper back edition).
Paper – II, Muslim Political Thought and Institutions:
The major purpose of this course is to acquaint the students with the major political concepts of Islam, the structural functional aspect of Islamic Polity, the writings of some prominent Muslim thinkers and with the prospect relating to the application of Islamic principles to modern times.
1. Political Concepts of Islam:
- Islamic Concept of State: Nature of Islamic Polity-Sphere of Islamic State-Islam and Theocracy-Democratic Ideals of Islamic Polity.
- Concept of Sovereignty and its implication.
- Islamic Law-its sources-place of Ijtihad in Islamic Law-Constitutional law-Personal Law. Muslim International Law-Sources and Characteristics.
- Concept of Millat and position of religious minorities in Islamic State.
- Concept of Liberty and Fundamental Human Rights in Islam.
- Principles of Social and economic justice in Islam – A comparative view with reference to modern secular ideologies
2. Traditional Institutions and their Organization and Procedural form in a Modern Environment:
Note: These aspects are to be discussed with reference to different view points regarding Islamic Provisions expressed at different stages of constitution-making in Pakistan.
- Khilafat – Theory and Practice, Principles underlying the institution. Grounds of Political obligations – Form of Government in Modern Islamic State.
- As Shura – its significance – views regarding its god in form; organizational and procedural.
- Al-Qaza-Judiciary as the guardian of fundamental rights. Judical Review to judge the validity of laws in the light of Quran and Sunna
- Al-Fauabi (b) Al-Mawardi (c) Al-Ghazzali
- Ibn Khaldum (e) Shah Waliullah (f) Iqbal
- Allama M. Iqbal, Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.
- Khurshid Ahmad (ed.) Islamic Law and Constitution.
- M. Hameed Ullah, Muslim Conduct of State.
- Ameer Ali, Spirit of Islam.
- Muhammad Asad, The Principles of State and Government in Islam.
- W. Arnold, The Caliphate.
- Rosenthaul, Political Thought in Medieval Islam.
- W. Arnold, The Preachings of Islam.
- U. Lahore, Interntional Islamic Colloquium (1957-58).
- Hussaini, Arab Administration.
- Ibn Khaldun, The Muqqadimah, trans. by Rosenthal, vol. I.
- Hussaini, S.A.Q. The Constitution of the Arab Empire.
- Sherwani, H.K., Studies in Early Muslim Political Thought and Admin.
- Hasan, Perveen Feroze, the Political Philosophy of Iqbal.
- Maulana syed Abul Ala Maudoodi,
- Muhammad Hameed Ullah,
- Aleem Ullah Siddiqui,
- Hami-ul-Ansari, Ghazi,
- Rashid Ahmad ,
- Hamid Ullah
Paper – III, Comparative and Developmental Politics
The purpose of the course is to acquaint the student with the major concepts and themes/problems of Comparative Politics. It is also intended to make them aware of the nature and problems of political development.
- Approaches to comparative Politics.
- Traditional approach: its characteristics & critique.
- Behavioural approach and its characteristics.
- The political system-basic concepts, characteristics, functions with reference to the work of David Easton and Almond and Coleman; and its critique.
- Political Culture: its meaning, elements, Kind and its relevance/importance to the study
PART II: Political Development:
- Political Development.
- Characteristics and
- Indicators of political development/modernization,
- Socio-political Change:
- Major theories and their functional implications.
- Political leadership, nature and problems-political parties.
- Bureaucratic and Military leadership.
- Major issues and problems of political development.
- National identity and integration.
- Legitimacy and participation.
- Anomic political activity and violence.
- Almond G.A. and Powell G.B., Comparative Politics; a development approach, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1966.
- Almond, G.A. and Verba, S., The Civic Culture; political attitudes and democracy in Five Nations, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1963.
- Apter, D.E.
- The Politics of Modernization, Chicago University Press, 1965.
- Shils, E.A.
- Political Development in the New States. Mouton and Co., The Hague, 1960. Colin Leys.
- Politics and Change in Developing Countries, Cambridge University Press, 1969. Samuel P. Huntington.
- Political order in Changing Societies, New Haven and London, Yale University Press 1968.
- Leonard Binder and others.
- Crisis and sequences in Political Development, Princeton University Press, 1971.
- Masud Ahmad Khan
- Muhammad Sarwar
- Moate Palmer and William Thompson, The Comparative analysis of Politics.
- Robert E, Gamer., The Developing Nations—a comparative perspective.
- Macridis, Roy C., Comparative Politics 4th Ed. The Dorsey press, 1972.
- S. Baqai., Social Order in Pakistan Society.
- Alasadir F. MacBean and V.R. Balarubramanyom.. Meeting the third world challenge.
- Wiseman, H.V., Political System-some sociological approaches.
- Mehden, Von Der., Politics of developing nations.
- Anderson, Mehden and Young., Issues of Political development.
- H. Dood, Political Development.
- David E. Schmitted, Dynamics of the third world; political and social change.
- Finkld, J.L. and Gable, R.W. Political development and social change, Wiely, 1966.
- Von Der Mehden, F.R., The Politics of the development nations, Prentice Hall, 1964.
- Easton, D., The Political System, Alfred A. Knop, New York, 1953.
- Morton R. Davies & Vaughan Lawis, Models of Political Systems Pall Mall Press Ltd. 1971.
- Michael Rush and Philip Althoff, An introduction to Political Sociology Western
- Michael Rush and Philip Althoff, Printing Services Ltd., Briston
- Services Ltd., Briston, Young, Oran, Systems of Political Science, Prentice Hall Inc. 1968.
- Henry Bernstein ed., Under development and development.
- Pye, Lucian W., Aspects of Political Development, Little Brown
- Pye, Lucian W. and Sidney Verba Political Culture and Political Development, Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 1965.
- Pye, Lucian W. Aspects of Political Development, Little, Brown and Co., 1966.
Paper – IV, International Relations
It is to be an introductory course aimed at introducting students with basic concepts approaches and create among them an appreciation of environments and problems of international relations.
- Development of International Relations as a separate Discipline Scope and Problems of study of International Relations, Idealist Realist Schools.
- Modern Sovereign State System; its evolution, Characteristics and crisis of the Sovereign State.
- Contemporary Environment of International Relations and its characteristics.
- Approach Wes-theories and concepts to the study of International Relations.
- Systems’ approach.
- Decision Making.
- Communication and integration.
- Conflict & Conflict Resolution etc.
- Powers, elements of Power, Balance of Power/Terror and Deterrence.
- Inter-alignment, Non-alignment, Neutralism and Nationalism.
- Collective Security, Disarnament and Arms Control.
- Diplomacy, Negotiations, Channels, Methods and Styles.
- Foreign Policy making.
- Determinants of foreign policy.
- National interest motives, intentions, ideologies perception and images.
- International Relations & International Law and Morality, nature of international law its elevance to and impact on international relations.
- International Organization its nature & Impact of International Relations
- Charles O. Lerche, Jr. & Abdul A. Said, Concepts of International Politics; Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall Inc., 1963.
- J. Holsti, International Politics; a Framework for Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall Inc., 1977.
- William C. Olson, Fred A. Sonderman and Davis S. Macllallan, the theory and Practice of International Relations; Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall Inc., 1979.
- William D. Coplin, Introduction to International Politics; a Theoretical Overview, Chicago; Round McNally College Publishing Co., 1974.
- Donald James Puchala; International Politics to-day, Chicago, 1971.
- Carlton J.H. Hayes, Nationalism, a religion, New York, Macmillan 1960.
- Charles Reynolds, Theory and explanation in International Politics, London, Martin Robertson and Co. Ltd., 1975.
- Hans J. Morgenthau, Politics among nations, New York, Alfred A. Knof, 1973.
- Inis L. Claude, Power and International Relations, New York, Random House, 1962.
- James E. Dougherty and Robert L. Pfaltzgraff; Jr. Contending Theories of International Relations, Philadelphia; J.B. Lippincott Company, 1971.
- James N. Reasenau, International Politics and Foreign Policy A reader in research and theory., New York, the Free Press of Glencoe. 1969.
- Joseph Frankle, Contemporary International Theory and the Behaviour of States, London, Oxford University Press, 1973.
- Morton A. Kaplan, System and process in International Politics, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1964.
- Norman D. Oalmer and Haward C. Perkins, International Relations; The World community in Transition, New York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1969.
- Paul Seabury, Balance of Power, San Fransisco; Chandler Co., 1965.
- Stanley H. Haffmann, Contemporary theory in International Relations, Englewood Cliff, N.J., Prentice Hall, 1960.
- William D. coplin and Charles W. Kegely, Jr., Analyzing International Relations; a multimethod introduction, New York, Praegers Publishers Inc., 1975.
- Taylor, Trevor, Approaches and theory in International Relations, Longman, London
- Karl W. Deutsch, the Analysis of International Relations, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice Hall, Inc., 1977.
- Charles Ikle, How nations negotiate.
Paper – V, Ideology and Dynamics of Politics in Pakistan
- Ideological Moorings:
- Evolution and Menesis of Two National Theory
- Significance of Pakistan Ideology for Political Process, State and Nation building and governmental policies.
- Constitution Making:
A review of history of constitution making with special emphasis on major constitutional problems, i.e., Islam and constitution-making, nature of federation, representation of provinces in the central legislature, unicameralism or bioameralism, the national language issue, and separate or joint electorate.
- A comparative study of the major features of the 1956, 1962 and 1973 constitutions.
- A critical appraisal of the working of Parliamentary system (1947-58, 1973-77) and Presidential system (1962-69).
Role of the military in the politics of Pakistan. Major causes of the imposition of Martial Law in 1958, 1969 and 1977.
- The Heritage and its reorganization after independence.
- Role of Bureaucracy in Politics.
- Political Parties:
- Major features of the party system in Pakistan.
- Review of the programmes and performance of the major political parties.
- Pressure groups:
- Ulema and Mashaikh
- Trade Unions.
- Other professional and trade organizations.
- National Integration:
- Salient issues of national integration.
- The East Pakistan
- Nature and problems of centre-province relations since 1972.
- Political Participation:
- Representation and Elections.
- Mass Political Movements 1968-69, 1977.
- Local Self Government.
- Judiciary: its role in constitutional development.
Sharif ul Mujahid: Ideology of Pakistan (Progressive Series 1975).
Khalid Bin Sayeed: The Political System of Pakistan.
G.W. Chaudhry: Constitutional Development in Pakistan.
Mushtaq Ahmad: Government and Politics in Pakistan.
Herbert Feldman:Pakistan: From Crisis to Crisis.
Keith Callard Pakistan: A Political Study.
Hasan Askari Rizvi: The Military and Politics in Pakistan.
Asaf Hussain: Elite Politics in an Ideological State; The case of Pakistan.
Lawrence Ziring: The Ayub Khan Era.
H.F. Goodnow: The Civil Service of Pakistan.
Robert Laporte: Power and Privilege: Influence and Decision making in Pakistan, 1975.
Wheeler, Richard S: The Politics of Pakistan: A Constitutional Quest.
Leonard Binder: Religion and Politics in Pakistan.
Nasim Zakariya: Pakistani Adaraa (Urdu).
- Khalid Bin Sayeed, Politics in Pakistan: the Nature and Direction of Change.
- Mushtaq Ahmad, Politics without Social Change.
- Fazal Muqeem Khan, Pakistan’s Crisis in Leadership.
- Munir Ahmad, Aspects of Pakistan’s Politics and Administration.
- Rounaq Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration.
- W. Choudhary, Democracy in Pakistan.
- Herbert Feldman, Revolution in Pakistan.
- Kalim Siddiqi, Crisis, Conflict and War in Pakistan.
- Khalid Mahmood, Trade Unions in Pakistan.
- Ziring, Braibanti, and Wriggins (ed.), Pakistan: The Long View.
- Donald E. Smith (ed.), South Asian Politics and Religion (Section of Pak.)
- Howard Wriggins (ed.) Pakistan in Transition.
Report of the Court of Inquiry into Punjab Disturbances. (Muneer Report) Lahore, West Pakistan Government 1954.
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1956, 1962, 1973.
Students are advised to consult research Journals and Newspapers for latest developments in the politics of Pakistan.
- Mohammad Sarwar:
MA. POLITICAL SCIENCE
PART – II
Paper VI Comparative Political Systems.
Paper VII Pakistan Movement
Any Three of the following Options:
Paper VIII: The Muslim World-Dynamics and Issues.
Paper IX: External Relations of Pakistan.
Paper X: Foreign Policies of Major Powers U.S.A., U.S.S.R., China, France and Britain
Paper XI: International Organization
Paper XIII: Political Sociology
Paper XIV: Local Self Government in Pakistan
Paper XV: Public Administration
Paper XVI: Defence and Strategic Studies
Paper XVII: Modern Political Thought-Western
Paper XVIII: Modern Political Thought-Muslim
Paper XIX: Research Methodology
Paper XX: Political System of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal
Paper XXI: Political Systems of Iran, Iraq and Egypt.
Paper XXII: Political Systems of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria.
Paper XXIII: Political Systems of Sweden, Norway and Denmark.
Paper XXIV: Political System of France, Germany and Switzerland.
Note: Candidates will be allowed to take up thesis of 200 marks on a subject approved by the Board of Studies in lieu of any two option papers.
Paper – VI Comparative Political Systems
This course is in continuation of “Theory of Comparative and Developmental Politics’ studied in M.A. Previous. The focus is to be on the origin, development and operation of the following Political Systems: –
- Political Systems of UK ad USA
The Focus will be on the following aspects:
- Political heritage.
- Constitutional and political growth.
- Constitutional and political framework; pattern of authority and power, Decision making process.
- Party politics and its trends.
- Pressure politics and the modes of political action.
- Peoples Republic of China
- Political and Cultural heritage.
- Establishment of the Peoples Republic.
- Political and constitutional development after 1949.
- Socio-economic development c Cultural Revolution Commune Systems.
- The Communist Party: Ideology, Organization, and role.
- Political condition in early 20th century.
- Nationalist Movement-Establishment of the Republic.
- Constitutional, Political and administrative changes under Kamal Ata Turk.
- Constitutional and Political development after Kamal Ata Turk, Working of Parliamentary system Parties and Pressure Groups.
- Military and politics in Turkey
- Beer, Samuel H. British Politics in the Collectivist Age. New York, Random House 1969.
- Butler Davis E. and Donal Stokes, Political Change in Britain, New York, Martin’s, 1969.
- Butt, Ronald, The Power of Parliament, London: Constable, 1969.
- McKenize, R.T., British Political Parties, N.Y., Praeger, 1964.
- Palmer, John P. Government and Parliament in Britain, London, Haward Society, 1964.
- Mackintosh, John P. The British Cabinet, London, Methuen, 1969.
- Rose, Richard, Studies in British Politics, N.Y., John’s.
- Brezinshi, Zhigniew and Samuel Huntington P. Political Power, USA, USSR, New York, Viking 1964.
- Bianco, Lucien, Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-49. Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1971.
- Houn, Franhulin, A. r of Chinese Communism, Englewood Cliffs, 1973.
- Snow Edgar, Red Star Over China, New York, Grov Press, 1968.
- Touensend, James, R. Politics in China, Boston, Little Brown.
- Menon, V.P., The Transfer of Power in India, 1957.
- Macridis, Roy C. and Robart E. Ward. Modern Political System of Europe.
- Kahin, George Metuman, Major Government of Asia.
- Lewis, John Wilson, Major Doctrines of Communist China.
- Pye, Lucian W. The Spirit of Chinese Politics.
- Dose, Richard, Politics of England.
- Punnett, R.M., British Government and Politics.
- Almond, Gabriel Comparative Politics Today A world View
Paper – VII Pakistan Movement
The purpose of this paper is to make an indepth study of the ideological., social, cultural and economic bases of Muslim struggle for freedom in the subcontinent, leading to in the subcontinent, leading to the establishment of Pakistan.
- Significant events and ideological movements bearing upon the development of Muslim nationalism; beginning of the Indian political movement and the Indian National Congress; The Aligarh Movement-its phases and contribution; Muslim respinse to Hindu religio-political and cultural movements; partition of Bengal; Simla Deputation; Establishment of the Muslim League; Circumstances leading to the cooperation between the Muslim League and the Congress; The Lucknow Pact Khilafat Movement; Politics in the 1920’s; Nehru Report; Jinnah’s fourteen points; Communal Award, Congress Rule in the provinces under the Government of India Act-1935; Lahore Resolution; Cripps proposals; Cabinet Mission Plan.
- Constitutional Reforms; Indian Councils Acts, 1861, 1892 and 1909 Government of India Acts 1919 and 1935; The Indian Independence Act 1947.
- Ideological foundations of the two nation theory with special reference to the contribution of Sir Syed, Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam, Secular versus Muslim Nationalism;
- Pro-Congress Ulema.
- Pro-Muslim League Ulema.
- Maulana Maududi
- (a) An appraisal of the ideas and role of the following leaders and organizations in the Muslim Political Movement; Sir Syed Ahmad Khan; Syed Amir Ali; Mohsin ul Mulk; Viqar ul Mulk; Maulana Muhammad Ali; Maulana Zafar Ali Khan.
(b) Study of Quaid-i-Azam as a Legislator, Politician, negotiator and mass leader.
(c) Anjaman-i-Himayat-i-Islam; Muslim Students Federation.
(d) Women’s role, in the struggle for Pakistan
- M. Ikram, Modern Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan.
- H. Qureshi, Struggle for Pakistan.
- Chaudhry Muhammad Ali, The Emergence of Pakistan.
- Abdul Hamid, Muslim Separation in India.
- Waheed uz Zaman, Towards Pakistan.
- Khalid B. Sayyed, Pakistan: The Formative Phase; Karachi, Pakistan Publishing House, 1960.
- Matlub ul Hasan Sayyed, Mohammad Ali Jinnah; A Political Study; Lahore, Ashraf, 1953.
- Abu Kalam Azad, India Wins Freedom; Calcuitta, Orient Longmans.
- Richard Symmonds, The Making of Pakistan; London, Faber, 1950.
- Jamil ud Din Ahmad, Specehes and Writings of Mr. Jinnah: 2-vols. Lahore, Ashraf, 1964.
- Syed Hasan Riaz.
- H. Qureshi, ed. A Short History of Pakistan, book IV: Alian Rule and Rise of Muslim Nationalism, Karachi, 1967.
Paper – VIII The Muslim World – Dynamics and Issues (Revised)
The Purpose of this course is to examine the political dynamics of the contemporary Muslim World. Current Challenges faced by the Islamic World, Both internal and external, are studies in detail. The phenomenon of Islamic revivalism and the current state system of the Muslim World is examined. Some significant developments both in politics and economics are also studied.
- Historical Perspective:
A bried survey of the state of the Muslim World in the early 20th Century.
(a) The collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
(b) The First World War and the Peace Settlement.
(c) The Establishment of the Current State System in the Middle East.
- 2. The Impact of European Colonialism on the Muslim World and Responses of Muslims to Western Powers:
Growth of Nationalist Movements in the Muslim World.
- Post Second World War Developments:
(a) The Arab Israeli Conflict:
(i) Brief History
(ii) Major Issues
(iii) Efforts for the peaceful Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,
Role of the United States in the peace process.
(b) The Iranian Revolution and its Implications for the Muslim World.
- Contemporary Problems and Issues:
- Issues and Problems of Unity in the Muslim World.
- Islamic Revivalist Phenomenon since the late 1970 with Emphasis on Iran, Pakistan and Egypt.
- Islamic and politics in Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia.
- The Development of Regional Organizations:
(a) The Organization of Islamic Conference
(b) Arab League
(c) Economic Cooperation Organization
- Melcolm H. Kerr, The Arab Cold war, London: Oxford University Press, 1971.
- Bernard Lewis, The Middle East and the West, New York: Harper, 1964.
- William R. Polk, The Arab World, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980.
- Waheed uz Zaman, Iranian Revolution, Islamabad,: Institute of Policy Studies, 1985.
- George Lenczowski, The Middle East in Gransition, 4th Ed, Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1980.
- James A. Bill and Robert Springborg, Politics in the Middle East, 3rd Edition, Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman, 1990.
- Johan L. Esposito, The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- James P. Piscatori, Islamic Fundamentalism and the Gulf Crisis, Chicago: The Fundamentalist Project, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1991.
- Eli Kedourie, Politics in the Middle East, New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
- Daniel Pipes, In the path of God: Islam and Political Power, New York: Basic books, 1983 Robin Wright, “Islam and Democracy”, Foreign Affairs 71(3): 131-145.
- Baghat Korany, and Ali E. Hillal Dessouki, The Foreign Policies, of Arab States, Westview Press, 1984.
- Ami Ayalon, ed. Middle Contemporary Survey Westview Press, 1991.
- Peter Sluglett and Marion Farouk-Sluglett, The Middle East: The Arab World and its Neighbours, London: Times Books, 1993.
- John Esposito, Islam and Politics, Sytycuse: Syrycuse University Press, 1984.
- Suroosh Irfani, Iran’s Islamic Revolution, Lahore: VJngujrd, 1983.
Paper – IX External Relation of Pakistan (Revised)
1- Major Determinants and Objectives of Foreign Policy.
2. An Overview of the Changing Patterns of Foreign Policy
- The early years of independence (1947-53)
- Pakistan and the Western Alliance system (1954-62)
- Reappraisal of Foreign Policy; bilateralism and independent Foreign Policy, (1962-71).
- Multifaceted and nonaligned relations in the post-1971 Indo-Pakistan war period.
- Pakistan and Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan.
- The end of the Cold War, The New World Order and Pakistan’s Foreign Policy.
3- Pakistan and the Muslim World: Pakistan’s relation with the Muslim States with special reference to the Middle East and Central Asia.
4- Relations with the S.
5- Relations with the Soviet Union – Russia.
6- Relations with China.
7- Relations with India.
- Major causes of strains and problems in Pakistan-India relations.
- History of the relations:
Problems in the early years of independence; The Kashmir dispute; The 1965 War and the Tashkant Declaration: The 1971 War; the Simla Agreement and the subsequent pattern of relationship; Important developments since 1980.
- M. Burke, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy, Revised edition, Karachi: Oxford University Press.
- W. Choudhury, Pakistan’s Relations with India, New York: Praeger, 1968.
- W. Choudhury, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Major Powers, New York: The Free Press, 1975.
- Muhammad Ayub Khan, Friends Not Masters (Chapters on Foreign Policy); Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1967.
- Hasan Askari Rizvi, Pakistan and the Geostrategic Environment; A Study of Foreign Policy, London: Macmillan and Martin’s, 1993.
- Robert G. Wirsing, Pakistan’s Security under zia, 1977-88, London: Macmillan 1991.
- Shirin Tahir-Kheli, United States and Pakistan, New York: Praeger, 1982.
- Leo E. Rose and Noor Hussain (eds.), United States-Pakistan Relations, Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1985.
- Lawrence Ziring, The Sub-Continent in World Politics, New York; Praeger, 1982.
- Noor Husain and Leo, United States-Pakistan, Social, Political and Economic Facters, Berkely; Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, 1988.
- Mujtaba Razvi, Frontiers of Pakistan, Karachi; National Publishing House, 1971.
- Alastair Lamb, Kashmir; A Disputed Legacy, 1846-1990, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1993.
- Anwar H. Syed, China and Pakistan: Diplomacy of an Entente Gordiale, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1974.
- Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, Pakistan’s Defence Policy, 1947-58, London: Macmillan, 1990.
- Farhat Mahmud, A History of Pakistan-U.S. Relations, Lahore: Vanguard Books, 1991.
- Rasul Bakhsh Rais, War without Winners, Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1994.
PAPER – X FOREIGN POLICIES OF MAJOR POWERS: USA., THE SOVIET UNION / RUSSIA and CHINA
- Determinants of Foreign Policy: Geographic, Strategic; Ideological, Economic Political and Military.
- Bases and Determinants of Foreign Policies of the United States, the Soviet Union Russia and China.
- The Cold War: The origins and Development of the cold War; conflict of interests between the two super powers. The nature of the Cold War; Political, economic and military dimensions; deterrence.
- From Confrontation to peaceful Coexistence and Detents.
- Sino-Soviet Relations: Development and Nature of the Relationship; The causes of Conflict and efforts to Improve the Relations.
- Sino-American Relations; Initial Conflict; Transformation since 1971; and the changing nature of Bilateral Interaction; Relations in the Post Cold War era.
- Major Powers and the Middle East.
- Major Powers and South Asia.
- The Contemporary International Scene The End of the Cold War and the Disintegration of the Soviet Union; American of the New World Order and the Global Agenda; Rationale for future conflict; An Examination of Huntington’s Clash of Civilization Thesis; and New U.S. Policy initiatives towards South Asia.
- C. Macridis (ed), Foreign Policy in World Politics, 8th ed. Englewood Cliffs; prentice Hall, 1992.
- James L. Ray, Global Politics, 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Miffin, 1992.
- Walter Jones, The Logic of International Relations, 6th ed., Boston: Scott, Foreman and Co., 1988.
- Richard Nixon, Seize the Moment, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992.
- Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994.
- Henry Kissinger, American Foreign Policy, New York: W. Northon and Co., 1969.
- John Spanier, American Foreign Policy, since World War II, New York: Praeger, 1975.
- John Lukacs, A New History of the Cold War, New York: Anchor Books, 1966.
- Alvin Z. Rubinste-in, Soviet and Chinese Influence in the Third World, New York: Praeger 1976.
- Rober E. Kanet (ed.), Soviet Foreign Policy in the Eighties, New York; Praeger, 1982.
- Ginsbourgs, Alvin Rubinstein and O.M. Smolansky (eds.), Russia and America: From Rivalry to Reconciliation, new York: M.E. Sharpe, 1993.
- Adam B. Ulam, The Rivals: American and Russia since World War II, Penguin Books, 1971, 1981.
- Henry T. Nash, American Foreign Policy: A search for Security, 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA Brooks – Cole Publishing Co., 1985.
- Charles W. Kegley, Jr., Eugene R. Wittkopf, American Foreign Policy: Pattern and Process, 3rd ed. London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1987.
- Samuel S. Kim, ed., China and the World: Foreign Policy in the Post-Mao Era, 2nd ed., Boulden , Westview Press, 1990.
- Robert O. Freedam, Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East Since 1970, New York: Praeger 1982.
- Patter J. Schraeder, Intervention into the 1990s: S. Foreign Policy in the Third World, Boulden Co: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1992.
- A Doak Barhett, The Making of Foreign Policy in China: Structure and Process, Boulden, Co: Westview Press, 1985.
- Robbin F. Laird and E. Hoffman, eds., Soviet Foreign Policy in a Changing World, New York: Aldine, 1986.
- Susan L. Clark, ed., Gorbachev’s Agenda: Changes in Soviet Domestic and foreign Policy, Boulder Co: Westview Press, 1989.
Paper – XI International Law
The purpose of this paper is to study the major aspects of public international law.
- Introduction, Definition, Nature and Scope of International Law.
- Origin, Structure and sources of International Law including, specially, Methods of determining the Rules of International Law; International Law and Municipal Law; Nature of Muslim International Law.
- Subject of International Law:
Requisites for statehood; individuals in relation to International Law; Recognition of States Government; Various kinds of Recognition and its methods; Legal consequences of Recognition & Non-recognition; State succession and its consequences Intervention Kinds and grounds of intervention; Methods of Acquisition and losing state territory; Law of Sea, recent developments with respect to straits, international waterways; High Sea and Deep Sea.
- Territory of State:
Jurisdiction on the High Seas; Over National Vessels; Over-Foreign Vessels in Territorial Waters; Fisheries in the Open Sea; Contagious Zone; Continental Shelf: and Hijacking in International Law; Aerial Jurisdiction and Jurisdiction over outer space; Extratoriality; Rights & Immunities of States and of state Instrumentalities in Courts of other States.
Conflict of Nationality Laws; Collective Naturalization; Dual Nationality; Modes of Acquiring and Losing nationality; Extradition; Political Asylum.
- Diplomatic Relations.
Its categories; Reception & Recall of Diplomatic Agents; Diplomatic Immunities; Immunities of International Organization, Termination of Diplomatic Relations; International Torts and Damages.
- Treaties:Nature and its kinds; Ratification and Conclusion of Treaties: Interpretation of Treaties; Effects of War on Treaties; Termination & Suspension of Treaties; Treaties Inconsistent under the UN Charter Provisions.
- International Disputes: Nature and settlement of International Disputes.
- Laws of War: Enemy Charter; Insurgency and Belligerency; Non-Amicable Measures short of war including intervention etc. Regulations of the conduct of Hostilities; Rules relating to POWs; Law of Military Occupation, Legal Effects of War; Blockade; Contraband; The right of Visit and Research; Neutrality; Rights and Duties of Neutrals.
- Codification of International Law
- Majid Khaduri, The Islamic Law of Nations, Baltimore John Hopkins Press, 1966., War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Baltimore, John Hopkins Press, 1955.
- W. Bishop, International Law; Cases and Materials, New York, Little Brown, 1962.
- W. Briggs, The Law of Nations, New York Appleton, 1955.
- C. Jessup, A Modern Law of Nations, New York, Macmillan, 1959.
- Lauterpacht, the Development of International Law through the International Court of Justice, New York, Praeger, 1958.
- Charles C. Fenwick, International Laws, New York, Appleton, Century, Crafts, 1965.
- L. Brierly, The Law of Nations, Oxford University Press, 1981.
- G. Strake, An Introduction to International Law, Bulleworths, 1963.
- Oppenheim, International Law, Longmans, 1963.
- Schwarzenberger, A Manual of International Law, London, Stevens.
- G. Colombs, The International Law of the Sea, Longmans, 1962.
- Friedman, Law in a changing society, Pelican Books, 1964.
- G. Fenwick, International Law, New York, Appleton Century, 1948.
- W. Jenks, The Prospects for international adjudication, London.
- Kaplan and Katzenback, The Political Foundations of International Law.
- A NoNair, The Law of Treaties, London, OUP, 1960.
- Stone, Legal Controls of International Conflict, Stevens.
- Svarlien, An Introduction to the Law of Nation.
- Wright, International Law; A contemporary Balance Sheet, Random, 1963.
- V.A. Roling International Law in an expended World, Amsterdam, 1960.
- Richard A. Falk and S.H. Mendivitz, The Strategy of World, Order.
- New York, World Laws Fund, 1966.
- Pitt Cobbert, Cases on International Law.
- C. Chesbire, Private International Law.
- Sir Henry Maine, International Law.
- Hans Kelson, Principles of International Law.
- John Westlake, International Law.
- Hershey, The Essentials of International Public Law and Org.
- Lauterpacht, Recognition in International Law.
- Holen Dwight Reid, International Servitudes in Law and Practice.
- Copline, William D. The Foundations of International Law.
- Chicago, Rand McNally Co. 1966.
Paper – XII International Organization
The purpose of this course will be to examine the nature, structure and functioning of the Principal public organizations that are international in their purpose and composition. The course will deal especially, although not exclusively, with the United Nations system.
- Nature: Conflict management and promotion of cooperation.
- Setting; Sovereignty; Equility; Power Politics, Nationalism.
- Historical and intellectual background of International Organization in the pre-World War-I Period.
- League of Nations; Origin, Structure and functions.
- United Nations; Origin Structure and functions.
- Collective security under the League of Nations and the United Nations.
- Peace-making and peace-keeping by the International Organizations with special reference to Kashmir, Korea, Palestine, Cango, and Cyprus.
- Super Powers and United Nations.
- East-West and North-South tussle in the United Nations.
- Economic development and Social Welfare through the United Nations.
- Regulation of armaments; Conventional and Nuclear.
- Internationalism and regionalism: NATO WARSA Pact, Arab Leage, ASEANOIC, Non-Aligned Movement, OAU, EEC
- Future of International Organizations
- Stoessinger, The Superpowers and the United Nations.
- Lynn Miller, Organizing making.
- James Barros, The United Nations: Past, Present and Future.
- Sydney Bailey, The General Assembly of United Nations.
- S. Goodspeed. The Nature and Functions of International Organization.
- Thomas Hovet Jr. Block Politics in the United Nations.
- Rutch C. Lawson, International Regional Organizations.
- G. Nicholas, The United Nations as a Political institution.
- Jack Plano and Robert Riggs. Forging World Order.
- Maurice Waters, The United Nations.
- Sydney D. Baily, The Secretariat of the United Nations.
- C. Coyle, The United Nations and How its works.
- Sarwar Hasan, Pakistan and the United Nations.
- I.ec. The United Nations and World Realities.
- Robert Macdonald, The League of Arab States.
- Ruth B. Russell, United Nations Experience with Military Forces-Political Legal Aspects.
- Keohane, Robbert O. and Joseph S. Mye, Jr. Eds. Transnational Relations and World Politics.
- Miller, Lynn H. Organizing Mankin: An analysis of contemporary International Organization.
- Brown, Lester R. World Without Barders.
- Jacob, Philip E. and A exine L. Atherton. The Dynamics of International Organization.
Paper – XIII Political Sociology
The course has been designed to study the various strands of social and political behaviour constituting political sociology. An attempt has been made to emphasize the importance of sociology in the study of political process.
- Meanings and scope of political sociology.
- The study of social and political behaviour.
- Social classification-social stratification: status, power, symbols.
- Political Sociolization Role of family, tribe, race, education and religion.
- Political communication: Information media, press, modes of political communication and control.
- Rural urban cultural patterns: Socio-political sociology.
- Public opinion: nature, formation, role measurement of public opinion.
- Individual and collective political behaviour; Determinants-modes, including anomic political behaviour.
- Michael Rush and Philip Althoff. An introduction to Political Sociology.
- G. Runciaman, Social Science and Political Theory.
- Oran Young. System of Political Science.
- Karl W. Deutsch. The nerves of Government; Models of Political communication and control.
- Lucian W. Pye ed. Communication and Political development.
- Parsons, Talcott. The structure of social action.
- Parson, Talcott. Theories of society; Two vols.
- Weber, Max. The theory of social and economic organization.
- ________, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology.
- ________, The Protestant Ethic and the spirit of Capitalism.
- Sidney clmer. Introductory Readings in Political Behaviour.
- Anthony M. Oreen, Introduction to political sociology.
Paper – XIV Local Self government in Pakistan
The object of this paper is to apprise the students about the system of local self government prevalent in Pakistan. It would enable them to understand the basic concepts of local government. Not only it would deal with the historical perspective of the development of local self government in Pakistan but also attempt to make a comparative analysis with the systems prevailing in UK and USA.
This paper would comprise of the following topics: –
- Meaning scope, nature and approaches to the study of local Government; need for local Government etc.
- Colonial heritage and evolution of local Government in Pakistan.
- Problems & issues of grass roots democracy in Pakistan.
- Organizational structure of local Government in Pakistan; its relation with the provincial and central Government.
- Functional structure of local Government in Pakistan; social work and voluntary service at Local level.
- Planning, development and budgeting in Local Government.
- A brief comparative study of local Government of Pakistan Britain and USA.
- Cole, G.D.H., Local and regional Governments.
- Cross, A., Principles of local Government law.
- Douglas, E. and Ashford, National development and local Reform.
- Golding L., Local Government, The English University Press Ltd.
- Jennings, Sir Iver, Principles of Local Government Law.
- Khan, M.A. Hussain, Problems of Municipal Administration.
- Shelley, A.N.C. The Counciller.
- Stones P., Local Government for studies.
- Warren, J.H. The English Local Government Systems.
- William A. Robson, The Development of Local Government
Paper – XV Public Administration
- Public Administration; its nature and scope; the role of administration in a modern state: approaches to the study of public administration; changing pattern of modern governmental organization (change from law and order and revenue collecting Government to welfare state).
- Bureaucracy: Theories of Bureaucracy, the nature and purpose and correctives of bureaucracy.
- Organization theory; traditional and contemporary approach; organizational equilibrium; patterns of organization; departmentalization delegation of authority; centralization vrs. Decentralization line staff concept; leadership in management. Human behaviour and organization.
- Management by autonomous or semi-autonomous bodies (Corporations Commissions, Boards).
- Personal management; basic concept organization of personal management in Pakistan; elements of personal management with special reference to Pakistan; constitutional provisions; classification of services recruitment; training (Pre-entry and post-entry); placement pay employee relations; performance ratings and promotions; superannuation employees association or union; conditions of service, ethical standards.
- Financial management, nature and elements; budgeting in Pakistan constitutional provision; concerning finance (central as well as Provincial Government of Pakistan; capital budget; performance budgeting; fiscal management in Pakistan.
- Planning; nature of planning; fixing the goals and criteria; organization for planning; process of planning.
- Administrative responsibility; (a) formal controls; legislative and judicial control of administration (b) informal controls types of informal controls; (public opinion, interest groups, other informal groups).
- Public Relations; administrative public relations; Day-to-day contact between employee and citizen; publicity and report; Advisory councils.
- Simon Smithburge and Thompson: Public administration, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.
- Pfiffner and Presthus; Public Administration, new York, The Ronald Press, 1960.
- Blau, Peter M., Bureaucracy in Modern Society, New York Random House, 1956.
- McGrecor, Douglas: the Human Side of Enterprise, New York, McGraw-Hill, Book Co. 1960.
- Brain Chapman. The profession of Government.
- Shaukat Ali, Administrative ethics in Muslim state.
- United Nations, a handbook of Public administration.
- White, L.D., Introduction to the Study of Public Administration, New York, The MacMillan Company, 1955.
- Gladden, E.N., An Introduction in Public Administration London, Staple Press, 1961.
- Appleby Paul. H., Public Administration for a Welfare State, Asia Publishing House 1961.
- Simon Herbert A., Administrative Behaviour, New York, The Macmillan, 1958.
- Lays, Wayne, A.R., Ethics for Policy Decision, Prentice-Hall, 1959.
- Walker Nigel: Moral in the civil Service, Edinburgh, 1961.
Paper – XVI Defence and Strategic Studies
A : Political Strategy:
- Political Culture, National Interest and National Goals.
- Ideology and Strategy.
- Policy-making; Sources, Processes, Elite Perceptions and Goal Orientations.
- Game Theory and Diplomacy.
B : Economic Strategy:
- World Economic Order.
- Political Strategy and Economic Development.
- Strategy of Economic Aid.
- Political Nationalism vs. Economic Internationalism.
C : Military Strategy
- Theories of Military Strategy.
- Military in Politics.
- Strategy of War; War as an instrument of peace; War and National integration: War as a National Goal; Kinds of War.
- Strategy of Peace: Cold War; Diplomacy; Alliances; Disarmament Nuclear Problifertation; Deterrance, SALT; Military Equilibrium; Balance of Power; Conflict Resolution.
- Robert Benewick, R.N. Berki and B. Paraekh, Eds Knowledge and Belief in Politics; The Problem of Ideology, London, George Allen and Unwin.
- Lloyd D. Black, The Strategy of Foreign Aid.
- Reo M. Christenson, et al. Ideologies and Modern Politics.
- William T. Eluhm, Ideologies and Attitudes; and Modern Political Culture New Jersey:
- Prentice Hall 1974.
- David E. Apter, Ideologies and Discontent, London: Free Press, 1964.
- Ins L. Claude, Jr. Power and International Relations
- Clausewitz, The Principles of War.
- H. Hartmann, The Relations of Nations.
- Morton A. Kaplan, System and Process in International Politics.
- Lerche and Said, Concepts of International Politics.
- N. Rosenau, ed. International Politics and foreign policy.
- Edward Mead Earle, ed., Makers of Modern Strategy.
- Andrew M. Scott, The functioning of International Political System.
- Kulaki, International Politics in a revolutionary age.
- Morton H. Halperin, Defence Strategies for Seventies.
- Robert L. Rothstein, Alliances and Small Powers.
- Andre Fontain, History of Cold War.
- George Liska, Nations in Alliance.
- Quincey Wright, A. study of war.
Paper – XVII Modern Political Thought – Western
Major purpose of this course is to give a deeper understanding of the recent trends in political thoughts in regard to political ideologies of different political cultures
1. The Revolution of Democratic Liberalism
- Theories of constitutional Government in Europe during 19th century; Rise of democratic socialism – Liberal concept of authority; Growth of democratic ideas in America.
- The Area of Liberal – Conservative disagreement in English and American Political Liberalism and liberal Political culture today. Ideology as a secular religion.
2. Revolutionary Collectivism
- Fascism and National Socialism – their roots and origin, The Nazi version of modernity.
- Communism: Marxism with special refesence to Communist modernity in the Soviet Union and China. Theory and practice from Lenin to Khrushchev and Mao-ze-Tung. The social and psychological background of Marxist appeal.
3. Modern Political Theories
Syndicalism; Guild Socialism; Anarchism; Utopian Socialism; Fabianism.
4. A new focus of political unity. Origin and development of Nationalism in the West. Nationalism and revolution in 19th century. The nature of Soviet and Chinese nationalism. Development of Nationalism in Asia and Africa.
- William T. Bluhs, Ideologies and Attitudes. Englewood, Cliffs, 1974.
- Cox Richard H., Ideology-Politics and Political Theory.
- Wakins Frederick, The Political Tradition of the West, Harward University Press, 1964.
- Arieli, Yehoshua, Individualism and Nationalism in American Ideology. Harward University Press, 1964.
- Thomas, Norman M., Democratic Socialism, A New appraisal.
- Oregor, A. James, The Ideology of Fascism:; the Rationals of Totalitarianism, New York, The Free Press, 1969.
- Armstrong, Joh A., Ideology, Politics and Government in the Soviet Union, New York, Frederick A. Praeger, 1967.
- Drachkovitch, Milorael, ed., Marxist Ideology in the Contemporary World; its appeal and paradoxes, New York, 1966.
- William A. Dunning, History of Political Theories.
- W. Carew Hunt, The theory and practical of communism.
- Connolly, William, E. Political Science and Ideology.
- Herbrt Marcuse Counter Revolution and Revolt.
- Kaloan H. Silvert, Man’s Power; A Bisased Guide to Political Thought and Action
Paper – XVIII Modern Political Thought – Muslim
This Courses is designed to study the trends of Muslim Political Thought in the modern period in regard to the intellectual works, and political and reformation movements in the Modern Muslim World.
- General trends, of Muslim Political and social thought during 19th and early 20th century, with special reference to the work of Jamal ud Din Afghani, Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida.
- Political and ideological movements in the Muslim World:
(a) Rise Arab Nationalism.
(b) Reformation movement of Ikhwan ul Muslameen in the Middle East.
(c) Development of Muslim Nationalism in India.
(d) Modernization in Turkey after the abolition of Khilafat; Islam in Turkish secularism.
(e) Revival of Islamic order under Aiyat Ullah Khumini.
- Contribution of Allama Muhammad Iqbal as a Thinker and reformer with emphasis on the following aspects of his thought; political significance of Khudi. Momin and Millat; His dynamic views regarding Islamic polity and Islamic Law.
- Abul Ala Maudoodi as a thinker. His views against secular basis of nationalism; His views regarding Islamic polity.
- Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah – His contribution to the ideological foundations of Pakistan. (A study of his speeches and statements is to be made to understand his views about the socio-economic and political bases of Pakistan.
- Albert, Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age (1798-1939) Oxford University Press, 1962.
- Smith, Wilfred Cantwell, Islam in Modern History, A Mentor Book, New American Library, 1961.
- Iqbal, Muhammad, Reconstruction of religious Thought in Islam, Lahore, Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1962.
- Parveen, Shaukat Ali, The Political Philosophy of Iqbal, Lahore, Publishers United Ltd., 1978.
- Charles, C. Adams, Islam and Modernism in Egypt, London, 1933.
- Uriel, Heyd, The foundation of Turkish Nationalism, London, 1950.
- Maudoodi, Abul Ala, edited Khrishid Ahmad, Islamic Law and Constitution, Islamic Publication.
- Sharif ul Mujahid, Pan Islamism in History or the Freedom Movement, Vol. III 1831-1905.
- Muhammad Iqbal Qaddus Kazmi, Mazamin Jamal ud Din Afghani.
- Gibb, H.A.R. Modern Trends in Islam.
- Hamdani, Raza, Hayat i Jamal ud Din Afghani.
- Jamal, Muhammad Ahmad. The Intellectual Origions of Egyptian Nationalism.
- Shamlu, Speeches and writings of Iqbal.
- Mazhar ud Din Siddiqi, The Image of the West in Iqbal.
- Maudoodi, Abul Ala, Tahrik-i-Azadi Hind Aur Muslaman.
Paper XIX: Research Methodology
Paper XX: Political System of India – Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal
Paper XXI: Political System of Iran – Iraq and Egypt
Paper XXII: Political System of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria
Paper XXIII: Political System of Sweden, Norway and Denmark
Paper XXIV: Political System of France, Germany and Switzerland
Paper XX: Political Systems of India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal
- Foundations and Sources of the Political System.
- The Constitution and the System of Government.
- Fedralism and National Integration.
- Secularism: Theory and Practice with special reference to the conditions of the minorities, especially the Muslims. The cast system and Politics.
- Political Parties: Features: The Congress Party; its role and internal dynamics; other Political Parties and their coalitions which rules at the Union Level.
- Problems and prospects of the electoral Process and democracy.
- Bangladesh Nationalism and Identity
- The Mujib Era
- Military’s Role in Politics: coups and military regines (i.e. General Zia-ur-Rehman General H.M. Ershad).
- Post Martial Law – Civilian Political Process.
- Problems and prospects of Democracy.
- The Heritage/sources of the Political System
- The Political, Process 1948-77, with focus on the Parliamentary system, Political, groups and leaders.
- The 1978 constitutional changes; The Presidential System.
- The Ethnic Conflict.
- The Political heritage
- Political and Constitutional developments since 1950-51 and with special reference to pary governments (1951-59) and Political instability, the impositions of the King’s direct rule.
- The 1962 Constitution and the Governmental Process, the Panchayat and partyless democracy.
- The Monarchy; its changing role.
- The Democracy Movement 1989-90; and the 1990 Constitution; performance of the Parliamentary System since 1991.
- Baxter, Malik, Kennedy and Oberst, Government and Politics in South Asia, 1987 or later edition.
- Jayaratnman & Dennis Dalton (eds.) The States of South Asia Problems of National Integration, 1982.
- World Encyclopedia of Political Systems and Parties.
- Robert W. Stern, Changing India, Cambridge University Press, 1993.
- Robert Hardgrave, India: Government and Politics in a Developing National 1980 or later edition.
- Hanson and Janet Douglas, Indian Democracy, 1972.
- Khalid Mahmud, Indian Political Science 1989.
- Norman D. Palmer, The Indian Political System, 1971.
- Craig Baxter, Bangladesh: A New Nation in an old Setting, 1984.
- Taulkdar Maniruzzaman Group Interest and Political Change: Studies in Bangladesh and Pakistan, 1982.
- Ghulam Hussain, Civil-Military Relations in Bangladesh, 1991.
- Leo E. Rose and Margaret Fisher, The Politics of Nepal, 1976.
- James Manor (ed.), Sri Lanka in Change and Crisis, 1984.
- Jeyaratnam Wilson, Politics in Sri Lanka, 1979.
- For the latest developments:
- Asian Survey (Berkeley)
- Regional Studies (Islamabad)
- Far Eastern Economic Review (Weekly; Hong Kong).
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