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# B.Com, Part-I & II Syllabus Sargaodha University

## B.Com Part-I & II Syllabus University of Sargodha

Syllabus and Courses of Reading of B.Com. Part I & II (I.T) The details of the scheme are given as under: –

B.Com Part-I

 Code No. Title of Subject. Marks BC-301 Business Statistics & Mathematics 100 BC-302 Computer Application in Business 100 BC-303 Economics 100 BC-304 Financial Accounting 100 BC-305 Functional English 100 BC-306 Introduction to Business 100 BC-307 Money, Banking and Finance 100 BC-308 Islamic Studies (Ethical Behavior in lieu of Islamic Studies for Non-Muslim Students) 60 Total: 760

B.Com Part-II

 Code No. Title of Subject Marks BC-401 Advanced Financial Accounting 100 BC-402 Auditing 100 BC-403 Business Communication & Report Writing 100 BC-404 Business Law 100 BC-405 Business Taxation 100 BC-406 Cost Accounting 100 BC-407 Economics of Pakistan 100 BC-408 Pakistan Studies 40 Total 740 B.Com Part-I 760 B.Com Part-II 740 Total Marks 1500

Practical Training

Two months practical training with a reputed Business, Information Technology and Commercial organization will be an integral part of the B.Com Programme. The students would be required to complete this training after appearing in the appearing in the B.Com Part-II Examination.

DETAILS OF COURSES

BC-301 BUSINESS STATISTICS & MATHEMATICS STATISTICS

1. Definition, Application in Business and Commerce. Classification and Tabulation. Statistical Enquiries, Diagrams and Graphs. Measures of Central Values. Measures of Dispersion. Skewness, Simple Correlation and Regression, Lines of Regression. Method of least square and curve fitting with application to Business. Index Numbers: Kinds of index numbers with special emphasis to consumer price index numbers.
2. Probability; Set theory. Definition. Laws of Probability. Conditional probability, Independent and Dependent events; Application in Business.
3. Random Variables: Introduction, Discrete and Continuous Random variables. Probability function. Expected values of Random variables.
4. Tests of significance: Introduction, Tests for means and proportions for single and two populations.
5. Sampling, Chi-Square, Statistical Package for Social Sciences

MATHEMATICS

Solution of simultaneous equation. Solution of quadratic equation, sequence Series and Progression; Arithmetic & Geometric and their application in Business. Metrics and determinants: Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication of Matrices, Expansion of determinants, Inverse of a matrix, Use of matrix in the solution of system of linear equations, Mathematics for Finance, simple and compound interest and annuities.

Note: At least two questions from each part will have to be answered.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

• Syed Hassan Mirza. Business Mathematic for Management and Finance.
• Richard Lacava. Business Statistics; when & Way; Irvan, & Publication, Illinois
• Lavin. Business Statistics. Prentice Hall Inc.
• Nasir Ali Syed, and G.I1. Gill. Statistics & Business Mathematics. Fair Publication, Lahore.
• John Hegarty “Calculus for Management and Social Sciences”, Allyn and Bacon. Inc. Boston (USA).
• Frank S. Bundwick “Applied Mathematics for Business, Company, New York, USA

PAPER: BC – 302 Computer Applications in Business

1. Introduction to Computer: History of computer, Parts of a computer.Types of computer: Analog and Digital Computers, Classification of computer, Hardware and Software. Components of a computer: Microprocessor, Memory: RAM, ROM, Input/Output devices & Storage devices. Types of Software: Operation Software: DOS & Windows Operating System, Application Software, Utility programmes, Programming languages: High-level, Low-level, procedural and non-procedural languages, Object-oriented and Data base query languages. Compiler, Interpreter and assembler. Common terminology’s used in computer field.
2. Data processing: Difference between Data & Information, Data Processing, Life cycle of data processing, How data become information. The need of data processing in business organizations.
3. Microsoft Windows 2000: Introduction, Task bar, Display properties, Control panel (mouse, keyboard, regional settings) etc.
4. Network: Types of Network: LAN, MAN, WAN. Communication Channels: Analog and Digital Transmission.
5. MS Office 2000 (Word, Excel and Power point).
6. Internet and E-mail: Concept of Internet, Services provided by Internet, Using a web browser, Address bar, Refresh and Stop, Use of search engine, Saving information from the Internet, E-mail concept, Creation of an E-mail account of Free Web Servers, Sending and receiving E-mails, Difference between ISP and free server mail account.

Recommended Books. (Latest Editions)

1. Liaqat Ali Chaudhry and Syed Asghar Ali Bukhari. Computer Application in Business, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co., Lahore.
2. Srivastava, C. Fundamentals of Information Technologies, Kalyani Publisher, New Delhi.
3. Norton, P. et al. Microsoft Office 2000. Techmedia, New Delhi-2.
4. Nuqoosh Software Learner. Short & Simple Guide: Find what you need fast, Nuqoosh, Lahore.
5. Robert A. Szmaski. Introduction to Computer & Information System.
6. Raymond Mcleod Jr. Management Information System, (International Edition).
7. Richard D. Irwin. Computer Information System.

BC – 303 ECONOMICS

Introduction: Definition, Nature, Scope and Importance (Micro and Macro) Economics, Description, Analysis and Policy: Economic Methodology.

Consumption: Definition and meaning, Diminishing Marginal Utility, Consumer’s Surplus, Law of Substitution; Indifference Curves. Consumer’s Equilibrium with Indifference Curves. Price and Income effect.

Demand & Supply: Definition and meaning, Curves; Elasticity of Demand and its measurement. Income and Cross Elasticity. Supply, Changes in supply. Elasticity of Supply, Market Equilibrium Analysis.

Production: Law of variable proportions Factors of Production, Land, Labour and its mobility, Capital, its meaning, accumulation of capital, productivity of Capital, Entrepreneur, Functions of Entrepreneur.

Costs of Production: Fixed, Variable, Total, Average and Marginal; Costs over time period. Derivation of short and long run cost curves.

Market: Perfect and Imperfect Competition. Demand and Supply Relationship. Market Price determination under Perfect Competition, Monopoly and Monopolistic, Competition, Oligopoly, Duopoly (Basic Concepts).

Factor Pricing: Rent, Wages, Interest and Profit.

National Income: Measurement of National Income: Concepts of National Income-GNP, National Income at market price, at factor Cost; Measurement of National Product in current price and in constant prices.

Public Finance: Meaning, Difference between Private and Public Finance, Kinds of Taxes and Cannons of Taxation.

Economics in Islam: Economic role of State in Islam, Zakat and Usher.

Mathematical Economics: Differentiation of functions. Partial differentiation. Application of derivatives in Business / Commerce, Optimization. (Maximization and Minimization).

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

• Lioyd G.Reynolds Irwin. Micro Economics – Analysis & Policy. Irwin Homwood Illinois,
• Nancy Smith Barrett. The Theory of Macro Economics Policy, Prentice Hall.
• Ed word Shapiro. Macro Economic Analysis, Harcourt Brace.
• Salman Rizavi, Economics, Syed Mobin & Company
• Paul A. Sameulson, Economics, McGraw Hill Book Company
• Saeed Nasir Textbook of Economics, Ilmi Kutab Khana, Lahore.
• Sh: Manzoor Ali. Economics, Ilmi Kutab Khana, Lahore.

BC – 304 FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING

1. Field of accounting. Accounting terminology. Accounting cycle. Accounting Equation.
2. Recording the business transactions: Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance.
3. Subsidiary Ledgers, Banking Transactions, Bank Reconciliation and Negotiable Instruments, Bills of Exchange etc.
4. Depreciation Methods and Accounting Treatment
5. The periodical adjustment and closing process-Accruals, pre-payments, inventory, depreciation, discounts, uncollectables. Correction of errors. Capital and Revenue. Provisions and Reserve.
6. The Worksheet and its Computerized Process .
7. Final Accounts, Income Statement, Statement of changes in owners’ equity, Retained Earning Statement and Balance Sheet.
8. Partnership Accounts – Formation. Admission, Retirement, Death and Dissolution.
9. Accounting for Non-trading concerns, Receipts and Payments Account. Income and Expenditure Account.
10. Incomplete records, single entry system.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. M. Arif & Suhail Afzal, Accounting, Azeem Academy Lahore.
2. Ghani, M.A. Principles of Accounting, Salman Publishers, Lahore.
3. Meigs and Meigs! Accounting. The Basis for Business Decisions McGraw-Hill Book Company.
4. Niswonger and Fess, Accounting Principles, South-Wastern.
5. Ch. Muhammad Hanif and Azam Shafiq, Fundamentals of Accounting, Etisam Publishers, Lahore.
6. Horngren, Harrison JR & Robinson, Accounting.
7. William Pickles, Accounting, Pitman Publishing.
8. Frank Wood & Alan Sangster, Business Accounting, Pitman Publishing.
9. International Accounting Standards.
10. Dempsey Dupree & Matthew Marder, Principles of Accounting, Addison-wesley Publishing.

BC – 305 FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH

1. Vocabulary: Antonyms, Synonyms, Homonyms, One word Substitute.
2. Practical Grammar – Sentence Structure: types of sentences – based on function e.g. Interrogative sentences, based on structure e.g. Compound sentences, Parts of a Sentence – subject, predicate, complements, direct indirect Objective, Rules for structuring sentences, Phrases – types and functions, Clauses – types and functions.
3. Parts of Speech: Major word classes, Nouns – with further classifications (regular, countable; uncountable; singular; plural), Pronouns – with further classifications, Verbs – emphasis on three forms of verbs, Adjectives – with further classification – three degrees of comparison, Adverbs – with further classifications. Minor word classes: Preposition, Conjunctions – with further classifications, Interjections, Auxiliary verbs, Determiners, Infinitive, Participle, Gerund, Genitives – types and functions.
4. Punctuation: Tenses – Types, Structure, Function, Conversion into negative and interrogative.
5. Active and Passive voice
6. Direct and Indirect speech.
7. Articles: Definite, Indefinite
8. Composition (comprehension) Precis Writing, Essay Writing

RECOMMENDED BOOKS (Latest Editions)

1. Atta-ur-Rehman, Functional English, Furrukh & Brothers, Lahore.
2. “J. Chilver”, English for Business; A Functional Approach, DP Publication Limited.
3. “Wren & Martin”, High School English Grammar & Composition: S. Chand & Company Limited.
4. “Michael Swan”, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press.
5. A.J. Thomson & A.V. Martinet, A Practical English Grammar:
6. “Robert E. Barry”, Basic Business English, Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jerssy.

BC – 306 INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS

Business: Meaning, Nature, Scope and Importance. Problems, Functions and Qualities of a Businessman,

Sole Proprietorship: Features, Importance, Merits and Demerits.

Partnership: Features, Merits and Demerits, Co-ownership vs. Partnership; Classification of Partners; Rights, Duties and Liabilities of Partners, Dissolution of Partnership.

Joint Stock Company: Features, Merits and Demerits, Formation, Memorandum of Association; Articles of Association, Prospectus, Capital, Management, Meetings, Winding up.

Cooperative Society: Features, Kinds, Merits and Demerits.

Combination. Forms of Combination.

Trade: Home and Foreign Import and Export Wholesales, Retail, Channels of Distribution: Meaning, Function, Kinds, Selection of Channels, Advantages,

Marketing: Definition, Functions, Types, Scope, Advantage and Disadvantage, Selling, Sales Promotion: Meaning , Objects and methods, Advertising.

Business Risk: Definition, Types, Methods of Handling Risk, Insurance: Meaning, Principles, Kinds (Life, Fire. Marine) Importance.

E-Commerce: Introduction and Significance.

Stock Exchange: Functions and working in Pakistan

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Nisar-ud-Din. Business Organization. Aziz Publishers, Lahore.
3. Khalid Mehmood Cheema,Introduction to Business, Syed Mobin Mahmood & company. Lahore.
4. Theodore J. Sielaff and John W. Aberle. Introduction to Business. Belmont, California Wordsworth Publishing Company, Inc.
5. Asakari Zaidi S.A. Fundamentals of Business. Orient Publishers, Karachi.
6. Glass & Baker. Introduction to Business, South Western Publishing Company.
7. M.H. Ali Business Organization, PBC, Dhaka.
8. Saeed Nasir M.A. Introduction to Business. IImi Kutab Khana, Lahore.
9. Pickle / Abrahamson, Introduction to Business, Good Year Publishing Company California

BC-307 MONEY, BANKING AND FINANCE

MONEY

Introduction: Evolution, forms and Issuance, Functions, Importance and Role of Money.

VALUE OF MONEY: Determination of the Value: Quantity Theory of Money, Cash Balance Theory of Money, Modern theory of Money,

Changes in Value: Inflation, Kinds, Causes, Remedies, Deflation, Reflation, Disinflation,

Stagflation.

Measurement of Changes in Value: Index Numbers, Devaluation of Money.

Foreign Exchange: Introduction, Determination of Rates of Exchange and factors involved.

Introduction to Money and Capital Markets:

International Monetary Systems: IMF, IBRD, Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank.

BANKING

Introduction: Evolution, Definition, Kinds of Banks. Scope of Banking.

Commercial Bank: Functions, Importance, Role of Banks, Credit Instruments & Credit Creation, Scope of E. Banking.

Bank Accounts: Opening, Operations and Closure of Various Types of Accounts.

Banker-Customer Relationship: Different Types of Customers, Nature of Relationship, Rights and Duties of Both Parties.

Bank Advances: Running Finance, Cash Finance, Demand Finance, Term Finance, Discounting of Bills, Purchase of Bills. Principles, Precautions and Procedures for advancing.

Letter of Credits: Kinds, Operations, Advantages.

Central Bank: Functions, Monetary Policy, State Bank of Pakistan, Functions and Role in the Economic Development of Pakistan.

Banking in Pakistan: Brief History, Nationalization, Privatization, ADBP, IDBP.

Islamic Banking: Evolution of Islamic Banking System in Pakistan.

FINANCE

Importance, Kinds & Sources of Interest Based and Interest Free Financing.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED: (Latest Editions)

1. Israr H. Siddiqui, Practice and Law of Banking in Pakistan, Royal Book Co., Karachi.
2. A.Menai, Banking and Finance in Pakistan, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
3. Crowther, An Outline of Money, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd, London.
4. Saeed Nasir, Money & Banking, Kitab Markaz Faisalabad.
5. Hassan Mobeen Alam, Money Banking and Financing, Syeed Mubin Mahmood & Co., Lahore.
7. J.Henderson, Banking Operations, D P Publishing, Ltd.
8. Zia-ud-Din, Munawar Iqbal & M. Fahim, Money and Banking in Islam, International Centre for Research in Islamic Economics, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah & Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.
9. Miller & Pulsinelli, Modern Money & Banking, McGraw Hill,
10. Akram Khan, Islamic Banking in Pakistan, All Pakistan Islamic Education Congress, Lahore.
11. Abdul Jabbar Khan, Five Decades of Banking in Pakistan, NBP, Karachi.

BC-308 Islamic Studies 60 Adopted for B. A / B. Sc Examinations

OR

Ethical Behaviour in lieu of Islamic Studies for Non-Muslim Students

Ethical Behaviour:

1. Meaning and Scope of Ethics,
2. Relation of Ethics with:
3. a) Religion b) Science c) law
4. Historical Development of Morality:
1. Instinctive Moral Life.
2. Customary Morality
3. Reflective Morality.
1. Moral Theories:
1. Hedonism (Mill)
2. Intuitionism (Butler)
3. Kant’s Moral Theory
1. Moral Ethics and Society:
1. Freedom and Responsibility.
2. Tolerance
3. Justice
4. Punishment (Theories of Punishment)
1. Moral Teachings of Major Religions:
1. Judaism
2. Christianity
3. Islam
1. Professional Ethics:
1. Medical Ethics
2. Ethics of Students
3. Ethics of Teachers
1. Islam’s attitude towards Minorities.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED: (Latest Editions)

1. William Lille. An Introduction to Ethics, London Methuen & Co.
2. Titus, H.H. ‘Ethics in Theory and Practice’ N.Y. Thomas Y. Crowel.
3. Hill, Thomas, ‘Ethics in Theory and Practice’ N.Y. Thomas Y. Crowel.
4. Ameer Ali, S. ‘The Ethics of Islam. Calcutta: Noor Library Publisher.
5. Donaldson, D.M. ‘Studies in Muslim Ethics’ London .
6. Sayed, S.M. A. (Tr.) ‘Ta’aruf-e-Akhlaqiat. Karachi: BCC&T, Kar. Univ.

B.Com Part-II

BC-401 Advanced Financial Accounting 100 Marks

1. Company Accounts, Issue of Shares, Bonds, over subscription, Refund. Issue of Bonus and right shares.
2. Preparation of final accounts under Companies Ordinance 1984. Dividends and the payment thereof.
3. Ratio Analysis: Solvency, Profitability, Efficiency, Marketability.
4. Branch accounts.
5. Departmental Accounts.
6. Hire Purchase, Installment Sales.
7. Mergers, acquisitions and changes in financial structures, Valuation of Goodwill and Shares.
8. Liquidation of Joint Stock Companies.
9. Consignments & Joint Ventures Accounts.
10. Contract Accounts.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Meigs and Johnson, Advanced Accounting, McGraw Hill.
2. Karrenbrock and Simon Advanced Accounting, South Western Publication Co.
3. Karrenbrock & Simon, Intermediate Accounting, Southwestern Publication Co.
4. A. Ghani, Advanced Accounting, Sulman Publication, Lahore.
7. Uzair Hassan, Advanced Accounting, Karachi.
8. Carter, Advanced Accounts, Pitman Publishers, London.
9. Rup Ram Gupta, Advanced Accounting, Agra Book Store.
10. Jamshed R. Batliboi, Typical Problems in Advanced Accounting, The standard Accountancy publications, Bombay.
11. Hrishikesh Chakraborty, Advanced Accounting, Oxford University Press, Dehli.
12. Shukla & Grewal, Advanced Accounts, Union Book Stall, Karachi.
14. Arnold Pahler, Advanced Accounting, Concepts and Practice, The Dryden Press.

BC-402 Auditing 100 Marks

 Introduction: Definition Scope and Objects Internal Control: Internal Audit, Internal Check, Internal Control for cash, purchases, store and sales departments. Kinds of Audit: Continuous, Final and Interim audit. Audit Program, Test checking, Audit Working Papers, Audit Note Book. Vouching: Techniques and Applications. Verifications: Verification of Assets and Liabilities. Auditors in Pakistan: Appointment, rights, duties and liabilities. Audit Reports: Statutory, Prospectus, Annual, Unqualified and Qualified reports. Specialized Audit: Audit of Textile, Sugar, Bank, Newspaper Cement and Insurance Companies.

Audit of computerized Accounting Records

Investigation: Meaning, difference with audit, Detection of Frauds.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, Auditing, Accountancy & Taxation Services Institute, Lahore.
3. Zafar M. Zaidi. Auditing.
4. Meigs & Larson Principles of Auditing. University of Congress, Richard, D. Irwin.
5. Attwood and Stein, N.D.de Paula’s Auditing, Principles and Practice. Pitman Publishing Ltd., London.
6. Emile Woolf, Auditing Today, Prentice Hall International.
7. Wanda A. Wallace, Auditing Macmillan Publishing Companies, New York.
8. Kamal Gupta, Contemporary Auditing, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, Delhi
9. Muhammad Aslam Khan, Refresher Course on Auditing, S.A. Salam Publications, Lahore.

BC-403 Business Communication & Report Writing 100 Marks

1. Importance of Business Communication: Introduction, Importance.
2. The Process of communication and Miscommunication: Elements of communication, General Communication, Concepts and Problems, Non-verbal Communication.
3. Principles of Business communication: Completeness, Conciseness Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy, Correctness.
4. Process of Preparing effective business messages: Steps in planning effective business messages, Basic organizational plans, Beginning and endings, composition of the message.
5. Direct Requests: Organizational plan, Inquires, Claims and requests for adjustments, Request regarding routine business, Invitations, Orders, Reservations Letters.
6. Good news and Neutral Messages: Favourable replies to the request.
7. Bad news messages: The right attitude, Plan for bad news messages, Un favourable replies to request.
8. Sales Letters: Solicited sales letter, Un solicited sales letter.
9. Collection Messages: Right attitude for effective collections, Collection stages.
10. Official letters: Parts and composition.
11. Business Reports: Meaning and classification, Main parts of the report, organizational and outline of report.
12. Market Reports: Definition, Scope, Importance, Contents, Market Terms.
13. Successful oral Presentation and Successful Listening: Presentation – Description and Methodology, Listening – Description.
14. Successful Informative Speaking: Purpose, Kinds, Organization and Outlines of the Informative Speech.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Herta A. Murphy, Effective Business communication, McGraw Hill.
2. Sh.Atta-ur-Rehman, Effective Business Communication and report writing. Farrakh Brothers, Lahore.
3. John V. Thill Courtland L. Bouee”, Excellence in Business communication, McGraw Hill Inc.
4. Norman Sigband & David Bateman, Communicating in Business, Scott, Foresman and Compnay, Glenview. Illinois.
5. Raymond Lesikar & John Pettit Jr, Business Communication, Richard D. Irwin, Inc. Homewood, Illinois.
6. Chester Wolford & Gretchen Vanneman, Business Communication, The Drvden Press.

Law of Contract

Definitions. Formation of contract. Essentials of a Valid Contract. Performance of Contract. Discharge of Contract. Breach of Contract: Law Governing Indemnity, Guarantee, Bailment and Agency.

Sale of Goods Act

Definition. Types of Contract of sales. Conditions and Warranties effects of the contract of sales. Performance of the contract. Rights of Unpaid seller.

Negotiable Instruments Act

Definitions, Characteristics and Types of Negotiable Instruments. Negotiation, Endorsement. Liabilities of parties. Discharge from Liability.

Carriage of Goods

Common Carrier. Essentials of a Common Carrier, Rights, and Duties of a common Carrier. Restricted Liability of Railway Carriage and by Sea.

Industrial Law

Laws relating to Factories, Workmen Compensation, Social Security, Payment of Wages.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. G. Chaudhry, Mercantile Law in Pakistan. Pakistan Publishing House, Karachi.
2. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, Mercantile Law of Pakistan, Accountancy & Taxation Services Institute, Lahore.
3. Khalid Mahmud Cheema, Business Law, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co., Lahore.
4. of Pakistan. Relevant Acts and Ordinances
5. R. Hashmi. A Manual of Mercantile Law.
6. Avtar Singh, Company Law, Irfan Law Book House, Lahore.
7. Denis Keenan, Smith and Keenan’s Company Law, Pitman
8.

History of Income Tax Law in Pakistan. Taxation structure and Administration in Pakistan. Income Tax Law. Assessment procedure. Income Tax Problems of Individuals. Partnership and Joint Stock Companies. Computerized I.T. Returns of individuals, partnership and joint stock company, Wealth Tax Structure, Basic Features of Sales Tax and its application.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Khawaja Amjad Saeed. Income Tax Law with Practical Problems. Accountancy and Taxation Services Institute, Lahore.
2. Muhammad Muazzam Mughal, Income Tax: Principles and Practice., Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co, Lahore.
3. Muhammad Muazzam Mughal, Sales Tax, Syed Mobin Mahmud & Co. Lahore.
4. Luqman Baig, Income Tax: Problems & Solutions, Karachi.
5. I. Naqvi, Inconie Tax Law. Taxation House, Lahore.
6. I Naqvi,. Sales Tax Law, Taxation House, Lahore.
7. of Pakistan. Sales Tax Act.
8. of Pakistan, Income Tax Ordinance.
9. Luqman Baig, Income Tax Law, Ghazanfar Academy, Karachi.

BC-406 Cost Accounting 100 Marks

1. Meaning, need and importance of Cost Accounting. Distinction between Cost & Financial Accounting.
2. Elements of Cost; Cost Classification and Costing systems; Cost Accounting Cycle & Costing Techniques.
3. Voucher system and Control Accounts, Factory and General Office books.
4. Job Order Costing and its Cycle.
5. Material Costing and Control.
6. Labour costs Accounting and Incentive Wages Plans
7. Factory Overhead Costing, Accumulation, Application and Departmentalization including variance analysis.
8. Process Costing; including treatment of addition of material in a subsequent Department.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. Nisaruddin. Cost Accounting, Aziz. Publishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.
2. Matz A., Usry, Cost Accounting, South-Western Publishing Co. Ohio.
3. S. Qavi Ahmad, Cost Accounting.
4. Horngren, Foster & Datar, Cost Accounting, A Managerial Emphasis, South-Western

Publishing Co.

1. Hammer, Carter & Usry, Cost Accounting, South-Western Publishing Co.
2. Jack Gray & Ricketts, Cost and Managerial Accounting, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
3. Brock & Palmer, Cost Accounting, Principles and Applications, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
4. T. Lucey, Costing.

BC-407 Economics of Pakistan 100 Marks

1. Economic Development and its Requisites. Mineral, power, water, forest and Human resources. Influence of resources on economic and social development.
2. Development of Natural Resources
3. Agricultural Development:

Main products. Food problems, Price of Agricultural products and Government policies, collective and cooperative Farming; Agricultural Finance: Problems and Remedies; Marketing of Agricultural products and problems related thereto.

4.Industrial Development:

Present position and prospects. Industrial finance and financial Institutions; Localization of Industries; Private and Public Investment; Large Scale, Small Scale, and Cottage Industries, SAMEDA, Marketing of Industrial Products

Main Exports and Imports; Volume, Value and trends in foreign trade and Balance of payments; Trade agreements

6. Transport and Communication:

Development of means of Transport and Communication and their role in economic development.

2. Economic Planning, Budgeting and Debts financing.

BOOKS RECOMMENDED (Latest Editions)

1. M. Saeed Nasir. Economic Problems of Pakistan. Ilmi Book House, Lahore.
• Government of Pakistan. Economic Survey.
• Government of Pakistan. The Five-year plans.
• Kh.Amjid Saeed Economy of Pakistan.
• Parvez Hasan, Pakistan’s Economy at the Crossroads, past policies and present imperatives, Oxford University Press, Karachi.
• Ishrat Hussain, Pakistan the Economy of An Elitist State, Oxford University Press, Karachi.

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