Botany Syllabus / Course Outlines Associate Degree in Science (ADP) Sargodha University



Total Mark: 100

Appendix ‘A’

(Outlines of Tests)

Paper-A:          Diversity of Plants (Written)                                      :

35 Marks

Paper-B:          Plant Systematics Anatomy and Development (Written):

35 Marks

Paper-C:          (Practical-I)                                                                 :

15 Marks

Paper-D:          (Practical-II)                                                                :

15 Marks


(a)     The 70% portion of question paper will be subjective type and 30% objective type, the question paper will be section wise and each question will be divided in parts.

(b)     The choice in attempting the question will be minimized to some extent.

Appendix ‘B’

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

Paper-A:        Diversity of Plants   35 Marks

Definition, scope and classification of the kingdomes. Basic concepts of evolution in plant diversity

1.                   Viruses:

  • General structure, types and reproduction of
  • Viral diseases and their economic importance

2.                 Kingdom Monera Prokaryotae (Bacteria and Cyanobacteria):

General structure, reproduction, classification and economic (such as Nitrogen cycle and industrial role)

3.                   Kingdom Protista/Protoetsta: (Algae):

( a )       General structure, occurrence, reproduction and economic importance

(b)       Classification of algae with specific examples

  • Chlorophyta: Volvax
  • Charophyta: Chara
  • Vaucheriophyta: Vaucheria
  • Bacillariophyta: Pinnularia
  • Phacophyta: Laminaria
  • -Batrachospermum / Polysiphonia

4.                   Kingdom Fungi:

(a)  General structure, life cycle, classification with specific examples:

  • Plasmodiophoromycota Plasmodiophora
  • Oomycota Pythium
  • Ascomycota Saccharomyees. Alternaria
  • Basidomycota Ustilago, Puccinia and Agaricus

(b) Role of fungi in agriculture, diseases of major economic crop Plants : rusts, smuts, downy-and powdery mildews, damping off, root rots food and industry


General account, structure and life history of Physcia

5.                   Kingdom Plantac:

(a) Bryophyta (Atracheophyta):

General account, reproduction, classification, affinities and ecological importance with special reference to the life cycle of Anthoceros, Porella and Polytricum.

(b) Pteridophyta (Tracheophyta)

General account, structure, life cycle and biological importance with specific examples:

  • Psilopsida; Psilotum
  • Lycopsida: Setaginella
  • Sphenopsida: Equisetum
  • Pteropsida ; Poly podium, Adiantum and Marsilea
  • Gymnospermae (seed Plants)

(c) General account with reference to structure and life history of Cyeas, Pinus and Ephedra andtheir affinities.

(d) Angiosparmae

(e) Introduction and distinguishing features.

Paper-B:         Plant Systematics, Anotomy and Development 35 Marks

Plant Systematic:

  1. Introduction to Plant systematics its aims objectives and
  2. Classification : Importance, brief history, introduction, various systems of classification (Brief account of all the systems)
  3. Brief introduction to nomenclature, importance of Latin names and binomial system with an introduction to international code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN).
  4. Morphology and Phytography a detailed account of various morphological characters of Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, placentation and fruit
  5. Diagnostic characters, economic importance and distribution pattern of the following families;
    • Ranunculaceae
    • Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
    • Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
    • Rosaceae
    • Euphorbiaceae
    • Rataceae
    • Moraceae
    • Chenopodiaceae
    • Cucurbitaceae
    • Solanaceae
    • Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
    • Asteraceae (Compositae)
    • Liliaceae
    • Poceac (Gramineae)

Anatomy and Development:

  • Cell wall; structure and chemical
  • Tissue and Tissu System: Concept; structure and function of various tissues.
  • Structure and development of root, stem and leaf including various type of meristem. Primary and secondary growth of dicot
  • Early development of Plant body (embryology) Capsella bursa-pastoris or Arubidopsis

Paper-C:        Practical-I 15 Marks

General culturing, maintenance. Preservation and staining of micro-organisms. Study of the morphology and reproductive structures of the types mentioned in theory paper. Identification of various types mentioned from prepared slides and fresh collection. Collection of diseased specimens of plants and their identification.

Paper-D:        Practical-II     15 Marks

  1. Study of cross section of monocot and dicot stem.
  2. Study of the simple and compound tissue in macerated and sectioned material.
  3. Study of cross section of bifacial leaf.
  4. To study the Prepared slides of secondary growth in dicot stem.
  5. Identification of families given in syllabus with the help of keys.
  6. Technical description of common flowering plants belonging to families mentioned in theory syllabus.
  7. Field trips shall be undertaken to study and collect local plants, Students shall submit 40 fully identified herbarium specimens.

Recommended Books:

  1. Bold. H.C.. Morphology of Plants. 2nd cd. Harper & Row, N Y.
  2. Dickison, W.C. (2000). Integrative Plant Anatomy. Academic Press. UK.
  3. Esau, K. (1960) Aatomy of seed plants, Lohn Wiley, New York
  4. Hafiz, A. (1986). Plant Diseases. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Islamabad, Pakistan.
  5. Lee, R.E. (1999). Phycology. Cambridge University Press. U.K.
  6. Mauseth, J.D. ((1998). An Introduction to Plant Biology : Multimedia Enhanced. Jones and Bartlett Pub U.K.
  7. Moore. R.C.. W.D. and Vodopich, D.S. (1998). Botany. McGraw Hill Company. U.S.A.
  8. Pahn, A. (1990) Plant Anatomy. Pergamon Press, U.K.
  9. Pandey. S.N. (1994). Text Book of Botany Vol. II. S. Chand & Co. New Dehli.
  10. Raven, PX, Evert, R. E. and Eichorn, S. E. (1999). Biology of Platns. W. H. Freeman and Company Worth Publishers.
  11. Ross, F.C. (1991). Introduction to Microbiology. John Willy, U.S.A.
  12. Ray. P. M. Sleeves, T. A. and Fultz. T. A. (1998). Botany. Saunders College Publishing. U.S.A.
  13. Stuessy, T.F. (1990). Plant Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, USA.
  14. Stuessy, T.F. (1990). Plant Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, USA.
  15. Sharma. O.P. (1992). Text book of Thallophytes. Tata McGraw hill Education, Publishing Company, New Delhi.
  16. Subramanium, N. S. (1997) Modern Plant Taxanomy, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd.



Appendix ‘A’

(Outlines of Tests)

Paper-A:          Cell Biology, Genetics and Evolution (Written)        :

35 Marks

Paper-B:          Plant + Physiology and Ecology (Written)                 :

35 Marks

Paper-C:          (Practical-I)                                                                 :

15 Marks

Paper-D:          (Practical-II)                                                                :

15 Marks


(a)        The 70% portion of question paper will be subjective type and 30% objective type, the question paper will be section wise and each question will be divided in parts.

(b)        The choice in attempting the question will be minimized to some extent.

Appendix ‘B’


(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)


Paper-A:        Cell Biology, Genetics and Evolution     35 Marks Cell Biology:

  1. Structures and Functions of Bio-Molecules




Nucleic Acids

  1. Cell: The Physico-chemical nature of Plasma membrane and cytoplasm.
  2. The ultra structure of plant cell with a brief description and functions of the following organelles
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Plastids
  • Mitochondria
  • Ribosomes
  • Dictyosomes
  • Vacuole
  • Microbodies (Glyoxysomes + Peroxysomes)

4. Nucleus: Nuclear membrane, nucleolus, ultrastructure and morphology of chrosomes, karyotype analysis

1.Reproduction in somatic and embryogenic. cell, mitosis & meiosis, cell cycle

2. Chromosomal

    1. Change in the number of chromosomes. Apeuptoidy and Euploidy
    2. Changes in the structure of chromosomes, Deficiency, Duplication, Inversion and Translocation.


  1. Introduction scope and brief history of genetics. Mendelian inheritance; Laws of segregation and independent assortment, back cross, test cross, dominance and incomplete dominance.
  2. Sex linked inheritance, sex linkage in. Drosophila and man (colour blindness. XO. X Y. WZ mechanism, sex limited and sex linked characters, sex determination.
  3. Linkage and crossing over: Definition, Linkage groups, Construction of linkage maps, Detection of linkage.
  4. Molecular genetics ; DNA replication- Nature of gene, Genetic code, Transcription, Translation, Protein synthesis, Regulation of gene expression (e.g. lac operon).
  5. Transmission of genetic material in Bacteria: Conjugation gene recombination in E. coli Transduction and Transformation.
  6. Principles of genetic engineering biotechnology; Basic genetic engineering techniques.
  7. Application of genetics in plant improvement: Induction of genetic variability (gene mutation, recombination), Physical and chemical mutagens, Selection, Hybridization and plant breeding techniques, Establishment of varieties Release of new varieties.
  8. Recombinant DNA technology, Plasmid vector, Cloning vectors, Polymerase chain reaction, Genetic Transformation in Plants.

Paper-B:         Plant Physiology and Ecology 35 Marks


  1. Types and properties of solutions. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes. SI units for expressing concentration of solutions, acids, bases and salts, pH. Definition of buffers and their role in biological systems. Colloidal systems, their nature, properties, and biological significance.
  2. Wafer relations (water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential, matric potential) Absorption and translocation of water. Transpiration, factors affecting transpiration. Stomatal structure and functions.
  3. Mineral nutrition: Soil as a source of minerals. Passive and active transport of nutrients. Essential mineral elements, their role and deficiency sympotoms withemphasis onN.K.P & Ca.
  4. Enzymes: Definition, nature, classification and properties.
  5. Photosynthesis: The process; absorption and action spectra. Mechanism: light reactions (electron transport and photophosphorylation) and dark reactions (Calvin cycle). Factors affecting this process; concept of limiting factors. Products of photosynthesis.
  1. Respiration: Definition and mechanism, Glycolsis. Krebs cycle. Electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation. Anaerobic respiration. Respiratory substrates and respiratory quotients.
  2. Nitrogen Metabolism: Biological nitrogen fixation.
  3. Growth: Definition; role of auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins abscisic acid and ethylene in controlling growth, introduction to plant tissue culture.
  4. Photoperiodism: Definition. Historical .background, Short day, Long day and day neutral plants. Role of phytochromes and hormones in photoperiodism.
  5. Dormancy: Definition and causes of seed dormancy: Methods of breaking seed dormancy.
  6. Vernalization : Annual and biennial forms. Hormonal concept and phasic development theory.
  7. Plant Movements: tropic movements – phototropism, Gravitrepism and their mechanisms. Nastie movements.


  1. Concepts of Ecology
  2. Brief history of Ecology
  3. Ecophysiology

(a)        Light and temperatureresponses

  1. Quantity of light
  2. Variation in light (temperature)
  3. Ecophysiological responses

(b)        Edaphology

  1. Brief introduction of soil forming process
  2. Texture, structure, and water
  3. Chemicl Properties
  4. Biological components: Soil Organisms. Organic matters
  5. Soil erosion, causes and solutions

(c)        Water

  1. Precipitation: kinds, and affectivity.
  2. Distribution of vegetation in relation to moisture.

(d)        Water logging and salinity, causes, effects and reclamations

(e)        Wind-Ecological importance of wind

  1. Population Ecology

A brief introduction, history and background. Seed dispersed. Seed bank, Demography, Reproductive strategy.

5. Community Ecology

  1. Concept of plant community-attributes
  2. Sampling methods
  3. Succession-history, concept, development and modern theories of succession
  4. Brief concept of productivity.
  5. Local vegetation

6. Ecosystem

  1. Definition and background with special reference to pond, Desert, Forest and grassland
  2. Ecological dynamic
  3. Biogeochemical cycle (Hydrologic and nitrogen cycle).

7. Pollutions: Soil, water and air pollution

Paper-C:        Practical-I    15 Marks

Cell Biology:

  1. Study of cell structure using compound microscope ami elucidation of ultra-structure from electron microphotographs
  2. Measurement of cell size.
  3. Study of mitosis and meiosis by smear squash method and from prepared slides.
  4. Study of chromosome morphologv and variation in chromosome number.
  5. Extraction and estimation of carbohdrate, protein. RNA. DNA from plant sources.

Genetics :

  1. Genetical problems related to transmission and distribution of genetic material.
  2. Identification of DNA in plant material. Carmine, orcein staining.
  3. Study of salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila.

Paper-D:        Practical-II      15 Marks


  1. Preparation of solutions of specific normality of acids/bases, salts, sugars, molal and molar solutions and their standardization.
  2. Determination of uptake of water by swelling seeds when placed in sodium chloride of different concentrations.
  3. Measurement of leaf water potential by the dye method.
  4. Determination of the temperature at which beet root cells lose their permeability.
  5. Determination of the effects of environmental factors on the rate of transpiration of a leafy shoot by means of a photometer/by cobalt chloride paper method.
  6. Tests for sugars (Reducing and non-reducing). Glucose, maltose, fructose.
  7. Chemical tests for the following cell constituents:
    1. Starch
    2. Cellulose
    3. Lignin
    4. Proteins
  1. Extraction of chlorophyll from the leaves and separation of component pigments no a paper chromatogram. Study of absorption spectra using spectrophotometer.
  2. Comparison of the effects of green, red and blue-coloured light on the amount of oxygen evolved by a photosynthesizing plant.
  3. Estimation of oxygen utilized by a respiring plant by Winkler’s method.
  4. Extraction of amylase from germinating wheat seeds and study of its effect on starch breakdown.
  5. Measurement of carbon dioxide evolution during respiration of germinating seeds by the titration method.
  6. Measurement of growth by leaf area increase method.
  7. Study of different stages of seed germination.


  1. Measurement of light and temperature.
  2. Effect of light and temperature on seed germination
  3. Determination of soil texture by hydrometer method.
  4. Determination of maximum water holding capacity.
  5. Determination of carbonates, electrical conductivity and pH in Soil and Water.
  6. Measurement of wind velocity.
  7. Population demographic techniques.
  8. Measurement of vegetation by Quadra: and plotless methods
  9. Determination of productivity by harvest method
  10. Trips / visits to ecologically diverse vegetations.

Recommended Books:

  1. Barbour, M. G., J.H. Burke and W.D. Pitts, 1999. Terrestrial Plan Ecology, The Benjamin. Gumming Publishing Co. Palo Alto California. U.S.A.
  2. Carroll, S.B., Grenier J.K. am! Welnerbee, S.d. 2001. From DNA to Diversity- Molecular Genetics and the Evolution of Animal Design. Blackwell Science.
  3. Chapman, J.L.and Reiss MJ. Ecology: principles and application. Cambridge University Press,
  4. Dyonsager, V.R. (1986). Cytology and Genetics. Tata and McGraw Hill Publication Co. Lid.. New Dehli,
  5. Hopkins. W.B. 1999, Introduction to Plant Physiology. 2nd Ed. john Wilcy& sans New York.
  6. Hoelzel. A.R. 2001. Conservation Genetics.Kluwar Academic Publishers.
  7. Ihsan Ullah; (1995). Plant Physiology, Biochemical Processes in Plants, UGC Press.
  8. Lodish. H. 2001. Molecular Coil Biology. W.H. Freeman and Co.
  9. Ricklefs. R.E. 2000. Ecology. W.H. Freeman & Co. U.K.
  10. Ricklefs. E.R. 2001. The Economy of Nature W.H. Freeman & Co. U.K.
  11. Salisbury F.B. and Ross C. B. 1999. Plant Physiology. 5th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing Co. Belmont CA.
  12. Taiz, L and Zeiger, E. 1998. Plant Physiology. 2nd Ed. Sinauers Publ, Co .lnc.Calif.
  13. Sinha, U. and Sinha, S. (1988). Cytogenesis Plant Breeding and Evolution. Vini Educational Books, New Dehli.
  14. Strickberger, M.V. (1988), Genetics, MacMillan Press Ltd, London.
  15. Hussain P. 1989. Field and Laboratory Manual of Plan Ecology National Academy of Higher Education, Islamabad.
  16. Krebs. C.J. 1997. Ecology. Harper and Row Publishers.
  17. Lewin. R. 1997. Principles of Human Evolution. Blackwell Science.
  18. Moore, P.D. and S. B. Chapman. 19S6. Methods in Plant Ecology Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford.
  19. Smith. R.L. 1996. Ecology and Field Biology. Addison Wesley Longman Inc., New York.
  20. Smith. R.L. 1998 Ecology of Elements. Harper & Row Publisher) New York.
  21. Stiling O.D. 1996. Ecology: Theories and applications. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
  22. Subrahmanyarm. N.S. and Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S. 2000. Ecology Narosa Publishing Houses, New Delhi.
  23. Townsend. C.R. Harper J.L. and Begon M.E. 2000. Essentials Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, UK
  24. Witham & Devlin. 1986 Exercises in Plant Physiology, AWS Publishers, Boston.