Geography (Elective) Syllabus BA / B.Sc Sargodha University

Geography (Elective)

Paper Marks
Paper-A: Physical Geography; 70
Paper-B: Human & Regional Geography; 70
Paper-C: Map Work and Practical; 60
Total Marks: 200

The Distribution of marks for the Map Work and Practical Exam shall be as follow.

Lab Work 15
Field Surveying 10
Field Report 10
Record of Map work 10
Viva Voce 10

Examination in Lab Work, Field Survey and Field Report shall be conducted during the Practical Examination by the same Examiners.

Note:-   A minimum of sixty practicals of 3 hours each shall be required in two years.(30 practicals each year). Map Work & Practical Examination will spread over two days.




The Earth and its origin

The universe: the solar system and the Earth. Earth’s Origin, shape and size, rotation and revolution, composition and structure,  distribution of land and water.

Introduction to Geological time scale.


Composition and structure of atmosphere, atmospheric temperature and pressure, winds and global circulation air masses and fronts (classification, distribution and associated weather), cyclones and weather disturbance. Hydrological Cycle, atmospheric moisture and precipitation, climatic classification: Koppen’s classification with special reference to the following types: Af, Am, Bsh, Csa and DF. Atmospheric pollution.


Internal structure of the Earth, Rocks- origin, formation and types (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic), plate tectonics, mountain building , geomorphic processes – internal and external, earthquakes, volcanic activity, weathering , mass wasting, erosion and deposition, cycle of erosion; landforms produced by surface water, ground water, wind and glaciers.


Configuration of ocean floor, ocean deposits, composition, temperature, and salinity of ocean water, movements of the ocean water; waves, currents and tides.

Recommended Books:-

Taylor (1993 Integrated Physical Geography, London; Longman
Thornbury,W 1991) Principles of Geogmorphology, New York, John Valley.
Mcllveen, I.F.R 1991) Fundemental of Weather and Climate London; Champan & Hall
Monkhouse, F.J (1988) Principals of Physical Geography, London; Holder & Stoughton.
Strahler, A.H. & Strahler. A.N. (1982) Modern Physical Geogrpahy, 4th   Ed. New York, John Wiley.
Miller, E.W. (1985) Physical Geography, Columbus; Charles  E.Merril.
Kimng, C.A.M (1980) Physical Geography, Oxford; Basil Blackwell.
Treqartha, G. Robinson,A.H Hammond, E.H. (1967) Physical elements of Geography 5th Ed. New York; McGraw Hill
de Blij, H.J. & M (1993) Physical Geography of the Global Environment   New York; John Wiley.

 PART-I: Human Geography

Man environment Interaction.

Themes of Environmental Determinism, Possiblism and Perception.


Growth and composition (age and sex structure), population change, natural increase and migration and distribution.


Rural and urban location form and function of settlements, Central place Theory.Economics Activity.

Location Characteristics of primary, secondary , tertiary, quarternary and quinary activities.

Environmental Problems.

Ecosystem and environmental degradation.


Study of South Asia with special emphisis on Pakistan under the heading recourse base (physical human and economics) Transport, trade and international relation.

Note:-   There will be two parts in paper B, the student will be required to attend at least two questions from each Part. Each question will carry equal marks.

Recommended Books:-

Goudie, A. (1994)  The human impact on the Natural  Environment oxford; Blacksell.

Horne, B. (1993)  the integrated human geography, London;  Longman.

Gregory, D.& Nalford, R. (1992)  Horizons in Human Geography London, Macmillan

Barrett, H. (1992)  Population Geography, London; Longman.

Bradnock, R.W. (1992) Hand Book of South Asia London.

Kureshy, K.U.(1986) Geography of Pakistan Lahore, Hafeez Press.

Bradford, M.G.  and Kent, W.A. (1986) Human Geography O.U.P.

Rubenstein, J.M. Bacon.R.S (1983) The Cultural Landscape; An introduction to  human Geography New Delhi  prentice Haees.

Deblij H.J. (1982) Human Geography, New York, John Wiley.

Bradnock, R.W. (1982) Agricultural Change in South Asia, London, John Murray.

Johnson. B.L.C(1979)Pakistan, London, Heinemann.

Spate, O.H.K. and  Learmonth, A.T.A (1986)  India and Pakistan, London, Methuen.

De Blij. H.J. (1986)  Human Geography cultural 5th Ed. New York,  John Wiley.


Study of Maps:

  1. Types of maps.
  2. Scales- plain, diagonal, comparative and their uses.

Methods of representation of relief. Exercises and drawing of composite contour maps with the help of given data and information.

Interpretation of

  1. Topographical maps.
  2. Aerial Photographs and introduction to Remote Sensing.
  3. Weather maps of Pakistan

Map projection: General principles, classification, choice of projection, merits and demerits, construction of practical and simple graphic methods of the following projections.

  1. Cylindrical Simple and Equal Area and Merator’s (with table).
  2. Zenithal: Gnomonic, Stereographic and Orthographic (polar cases).
  3. Conical case and two standard parallel.

Simple quantitative techniques and their use in geography: methods of data collection, study of frequency distribution, averages (mean, median and mode), mean Deviation, and Standard Deviation.

Preparation of distributional maps with the help of symbols, line, bars, shade, dots, circles.

instrumental surveying: making of plans with the help of chain, plane table and prismatic compass.

Field report based on the study of geographical aspects of a selected area / activity.

Recommended Books:-

Dent,B.D.               (1993)    Cartography Thematic Maps Design oxford, WCB.

Benton Jr.A.R.      (1992)    Elements of Plane Surveying New York, McGraw Hill.

Capmbell, J.         (1990)    Introduction to Cartography oxford WCB.

Briggs, K.               (1989)    Practical Geography, London, Hodder and  Stoughton.

Robinson. A.h.      (1988)    Elements of Cartography, New York, John Wiley.

Singh R.L.             (1979)    Elements of Practical Geography, New Delhi, Kalyani Publishers.

Ahmad.K.S.          (1973)    Map Production Lahore, Publishers United.

Bygott, J.                (1969)    An introduction to map work and practical geography London University Tutorial press.

Monkhouse F.J (1971)       Maps and Diagrams, (Third Ed.) London, Methuen & Co.