History BA Syllabus Sargodha University

History (elective)

(Effective from 2006-2008 & Onward)

(New Course)


As a matter of fact ‘History’ is an accurate (possible) record of past events. It provides the status of phenomenon at given times. It also provides interpretation and evaluation of problems, issues, movements and direct observation as eyewitness and indirect observation through documents, relics and remains. It helps to determine the change, growth and development of human race. It is discovery of characteristics traits, norms, and statutes in different ages.


Scheme of Studies

B.A History Syllabus shall consist of two papers of 100 marks each. Students shall be asked to choose any one of the following four groups. In each paper there shall be one compulsory objective question of multiple choice, bearing 20 marks.

The four groups in B.A History are as under.

 1. Islamic History

Paper A: –  Advent of Islam to the Fall of Umayyad (570 AD to 750 AD)

Paper B: –  History of Abbasids (750 AD to 1258 AD)

and Muslim Rule in Spain (712 AD to 1492 AD)


                History of Modern Muslim World. (1919 AD to 2002 AD)

 2.       History of Muslims of South Asia

Paper A: –  History of Delhi Sultanate (712 AD to 1526 AD)

Paper B: –  History of Mughals (1526 AD 1857 AD)

3. History of Pakistan

 Paper A: – Genesis of Pakistan Movement (1857 AD to 1947 AD)

Paper B: – History of Pakistan (1947 AD to 2005 AD)

 4. History of Europe

Paper A: – History of Modern Europe (1789 to 1945 AD)

Paper B: International Relations and Organizations. (1945 AD to 2005 AD)

Detail of Courses



(570 to 750 AD)

1- Pre-Islamic Arabia

Geographical, political, social, economic and religious conditions of the city state of Makkah.

2- The Holy Prophet (SAW)

Birth of the Prophet, Prophethood and Preaching of Islam; the opposition of the Quraish; Migration to Ethopia and Madina. Socioeconomic and cultural foundations including contributions of Ashab-e-Suffa.

Brotherhood, the Madina charter, wars with           Quraish, (battle of Badar, Uhad and Ahzab); the peace accord of Hudaibiyya; the Prophet’s letters to the various rulers; the conquest of Makkah; the battle of Hunain; the spread of Islam in Central Arabia; the Tubuk expedition, the Prophet’s last pilgrimage and the significance of the last Sermon; his Seerat and achievements.

3- Hazart Abu Bakar (RA)

His early life and sacrifices for the cause of Islam; his election as Caliph; the movement of apostasy; rise of false prophets; the refusal of Zakat; the consolidation of center; the conquest of Iraq; relations with Iran, Syria, and Byzantine; the compilation of the Quran; his character and achievements.

4- Hazart Umar Bin Khattab(RA)

His early life and acceptance of Islam, his services for the cause of Islam, his role during the caliphate of Abu Bakar; Umar’s nomination as caliph, the conquests of Iran, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Azerbaijan and Armenia; expansion of Muslim power; his reforms and administration, development of Muslim institutions and the projects of public welfare, his character and achievements.

5- Hazrat Usman (RA)

His early life and acceptance of Islam; his services for the cause of Islam; his role during the life time of the Prophet, Abu Bakar and Umar, his election as caliph; conquest of North Africa, Cyprus, Tabaristan, Turkmanistan and Makran, the Sabite movement, opposition of Uthman. His martyrdom and its consequences, his character and achievements.

6- Hazrat Ali (RA)

His early life; his services for the cause of Islam; his role during the life time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, Uamr and Uthman, his installation as caliph, the battle of the camel, the battle of Siffin, emergence of the Kharjites, battle of Naharwan, Hazrat Ali’s martyrdom; his character and achievements, Imam Hasan as caliph, his abdication.

7. Administrations and Structure of Government under the Khulafa-e-Rashidin

Administrative, financial and judicial system under the Pious Caliphs, the status of the Dhimmis and the “Mawali”, the social life of the Muslims, salient features of the Khilafat-e-Rashida.


8. Amir Muawiyah

Political condition of Islamic world at the time of his accession; establishment of Umayyad Dynasty. Changed character of the caliphate, nomination versus elections, measures to consolidate the empire his administration. His achievements and character.

9. Yazid-I

His succession and the rule of single dynasty. The tragedy of Karbala, its effects and significance in the history of Islam. Event of “Harrah”. Siege of  Makkah.

10. Marwan Bin Hakam

Abdullah Ibn Zubair, Jabia Conference, election of Marwan; the battle of Marj-i-Rahit, Marwan’s internal policy and consolidation of power, his character.

11. Abdul Malik Bin Marwan

Political conditions of Islamic world at the time of his accession. The real founder of Umayyad dynasty, consolidation of his power, his administrative policy and reforms, the role of Hajjaj bin Yousaf, his character and achievements.

12. Walid Bin Abdul Malik

Expansion of Islamic empire in Asia, Africa and Europe, his works of public utility, his reforms and achievements. His glorious reign.

13. Sulaiman Bin Abdul Malik

His ill treatment of Muslim Generals, siege of Constantinople; his character and polices. Nomination of Umar bin Abdul Aziz.

14. Umar Bin Abdul Aziz

The fifth pious Caliph; administrative and religious reforms; state policy; character and achievements.

15. Hisham and later Umayyads

Important events of their rule; Abbasid Movement; propaganda and the causes of success.

16. Down Fall of Umayyad

Fall of the Umayyads dynasty and causes of decline.

17. Nature of Umayyad Rule

Growth and expansion of Islamic empire; central and provincial administration; judiciary and military system; social, cultural and economic development.

Suggested Readings:

  • Syed Amir Ali, The History of the Saracens.
  • Syed Amir Ali, The Spirit of Islam.
  • Wellhausen, The Arab kingdom and its Fall.
  • A.Q. Hussaini, Arab Administration.
  • Mazharuddin Siddiqui, Development of Islamic State and Society.
  • Cambride Lewis: Islam, (Relevant Chapters).
  • Bernared Lewis: Islam and the World.
  • Philip K. Hitti: History of the Arabs.
  • Habib Hourani: History of the Arabs.
  • Montgomery Watt: Muhammad at Mecca Muhammad at Madina.
  • Shaban: Abbaside Revolution. Cambridge.



and MUSLIM RULE IN SPAIN (712 to 1492 AD)

1- The Abbasid Movement

The Abbasid Movement and causes of its success. Role of Abu Muslim Khurasani; establishment of Abbasid caliphate.

2. Abul Abbas Al Saffah

His character and consolidation of power.

3. Abu Jaffar Al Mansur

Rebellions of Abdullah bin Ali and Abu Muslim Khurasani; Rawindiya sect and the kharjites; Mansur and the Alids; conquests and consolidation of the Caliphate – Administration; foundation of Baghdad. Character and achievements.

4. Al Mehdi

Revolts of Muqannah and Zindiqa; conquests; wars against the Romans; estimate of his character.

5. Al Hadi.

His policy towards Alids; revols; estimates of his character.

6. Harun al Rashid

Rise and fall of the Barmakides, early revolts; wars in Africa, establishment of Idrisia kingdom; war against Romans. His character and achievements.

7. Amin-al-Rashid

Differences with Mamun; war between the two brothers and murder of Amin; estimates of his character.

8. Mamum-al-Rashid

Disorder in Baghdad, entry in Baghdad. Tahiriyya and Zaidiyya kingdoms – Babak Khurrami – conquests in the East, Asia Minor and the Mediterranean. His religious policy – Mutazalite, scientific and literary progress.

9. Muetasim Billah

Turkish soldiery; foundation of Samarra – conquests in Asia Minor; estimate of his character.

10. Wasiq Billah

Aggrandizement of Turks. Turkish soldiery cut to size; new religious policy and its results.

11. Mutawakkil

His state policy and religious Policy; his murder.

12. Later Abbasids

From Mustansir Billah to Muetasim Billah, a brief survey – Fall of Baghdad at the hands of Hulaku Khan.

13. Downfall of Abbasids

Causes of the downfall of the Abbasid caliphate.

14. Abbasid Administration

Central structure and its main functionaries. Provincial administration. sources of income. Army. Judiciary.

15. Literary, Educational and Scientific Developments

Science, art and literature; Bait-ul-Hikmat; medicine, philosophy, ilm-ul-kalam, Ikhwan-us-Safa, astronomy and astrology, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, geography and history; traditions and jurisprudence – poetry, architecture, calligraphy, paintings and music.

16. Societies and Economic Life

Society and Economic life under the Abbasids.

17. Condition of Spain on the eve of the Muslim conquest   (political, social   and religious conditions.)

18. Conquest of Spain

Musa bin Nusair and Tariq bin Ziyad. The causes of invasion and success.

19. Spain under Muslim Governors

Emergence of christian state of the North.

20. Abdul Rehman I His character and achievements.

21. Hisham I His internal policy; introduction of Maliki Fiqh.

22. Hakam I His character and achievements, relations with theologians, wars and rebellions, rise of Maliki Fiqah.

23. Abdul Rehman II His character and achievements, relations with the christians, foreign policy, cultural and literary activities.

24. Muhammad I His character and achievements, his relations with Non-Muslims, rebellion in Toledo, rise of Banu Qisi, rebellions of Ibn Marvan and Ibn Hafsun, succession of Munzar and Abdullah.

25. Abdul Rehman III Early difficulties, restoration of law and order, internal and external policy, relations with the christians and Fatimids, the title of caliph, his character and achievements.

26. Hakam II His relations with North Africa and christians, advancement of art and literature.

27. Hisham II (Hisham Almoeed) His character and achievements.

28. Later Umayyads, the rise of Hajib-al-Mansur; relations with the courtiers and Theologians, Jihad against the christians, his character and achievements.

29. Administration of Spain under the Umayyads.

30. Petty dynasties.

31. Decline and fall of Umayyads of Spain: causes, Almoravids, Almohads.

32. Fall of Granada (1492).

33. Contribution of arts, architecture, literature and science.

Suggested Readings:

  • Sir T.W. Arnold, The Caliphate.
  • Amir Hussain Siddiqui, Islamic State; A Historical Survey.
  • Fayyaz Mahmood, History of Islam.
  • Syed Amir Ali, London, The Short History of Saracens.
  • Syed Amir Ali, London, The Spirit of Islam.
  • A.Q. Hussani, Arab Administration.
  • Mazaral-ul-Haq, History of Islam.
  • Imam-ud-Din, Dacca, 1959, Political History of Muslim Spain.
  • Imam-ud-Din, A Cultural History of Spain.

10) Dozy, R., Spanish Islam.

11) Stanley lane Pole, The Moors in Spain, Lahore 1953.

12) T.B. Irving: The Falcons of Spain.

Paper B



(1919 to 2002 AD)

A brief introduction of modern Muslim world with special reference to the impacts of colonialism. Special study of Iran and Arab world.

7. IRAN: land and people

General introduction with historical background.

World War-I and its effects on Iran.

Rise and reforms of Raza Shah Kalalin.

World War-II and Iran.

Abdication of Raza Shah kalin.

Rise of Movements.

Raza Shah’s rules.

Iran’s role in Muslim world.

Revolution – Revolutionary regime.

Pakistan Iran relations.

8. Saudi Arabia

Husein’s rule in Hijaz; Ibn Saud, forming of Saudi Arabia into kingdom, discovery of oil and its impact upon the socio-political and economic life of the society 2nd World War and aftermath. King Saud, its internal and external polices. King Faisal internal reforms, foreign Policy, King Khalid rule. King Fahad rule.

9. Iraq Under Mandatory Power: 1920 to 1930 AD

King Faisal; internal problems, Anglo—Iraqi Treaty, Politics in 1930s, Iraq during World War second, domestic politics in 1950, the Baghdad pact, The revolution of 1958 and its aftermath, the First Baath Revolution, The era of Arif, the Second Baath Revolution, Iraq under Sadam Husein. American intervention and Fall of Sadam Husein.

10. Syria

Under rench Mandate, partition of Syria into Lebanon and Syria, Franco—Syrian Treaty 1936. Syria during World War 2nd, the Husenei Zaim Revolution, the Hinawi and the Shiskali coups, Return to constitutional life, UAR, After the dissolution of Union, Baath party rule, The Leadership of Hafiz Assad.

11. Lebnan

Under French Mandate, Franco—Lebnon treaty, 1936 Lebnon’s Liberation and (World war II), The coup of 1952 and its aftermath, The Lebanese civil war; The Presidencies of Faud Chechab and Suleiman Franjiyeh, Lebanon 1976 to 1985.

12. Palestine

Land, people, balfoure declaration, British mandate, partition of the Palestine, creation of Isreal, 1948 Arab-Isreal War, 1967and 1973 Arab—Isreal wars, Palestinian problems and UNO.

13. Egypt

Under British protectorate, under monarchy, Saad Zaghlul & Wafd party; Anglo Egyptian treaty of 1936; Nahas Pasha & Wafd party; Egypt during second world war, the 1952 coup, General Naguib, President Nasser. Suez crises, Pan—Arabism and UAR After the dissolution of UAR, Arab; Isreal wars of 1967 & 1973 & Egypt, Sadat’s rule, Camp David agreement, Ikhwan-ul-Muslimin. Hosni Mobarik’s rule.

Recommended Books:

  • Hurewitz, J.C., Soviet American Rivalry in the Middle East    New York, 1969.
  • ……………..,        The Middle East Politics: The Military Dimeses

New York, 1969.

  • …………….., Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East:

                             A Documentary Record, Princetion,1956,2 Vol.

  • Al—Marayati, Aloid A & Others, The Middle East: Its Governments & Politics, Belmont, 1972.
  • Rubinsten, Alvin Z. , Red Star on the Nile: The Soviet Egyptian relationship since the June war, Princton, 1977.
  • Hitti, P.K. , Near East in History.
  • Harari, Maurice, Governments & Politics of the Middle East.
  • Neguib, Muhammad, Eqypt’s Destiny: A personal statement, New York,1955.
  • El—Sadat, Anwer, Revolt on the Nile, London, 1957.

10) …………………, In Search of Identity: An Autobiography, New York, 1978.

11) Abdullah, King of Jordan, My Memoirs, tran, by Harlod W.G.London,1978.

12) Armajani, Yahya, Middle East: Past and Present, New Jersy, 1980.

13) Sharabi, H.B., Government & Politics of Middle East in the 20th Century       New Jersy, 1962.

14) Lenczowski, George, The Middle East in the World Affairs, New York,1988.


 Paper – A

 (712 to 1526 AD)

(Conquest of Sindh – Delhi Sultanate – up to the Advent of Mughals)

1- South Asia on the eve of Arab Conquest

    1. Historical background, geographical, political, social, religious and economic conditions of South Asia; its relations with neighboring regions.
    2. Causes of Arab invasion of Sindh – Muhammad Bin Qasim and his conquests, Arab administration of Sindh, settlement of Brahmanabad – political, cultural, religious and social impacts of the conquests. City states of Makran, Mansurah, and Multan.

2. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna

Causes of his Indian campaigns; its significance and impact. Character and achievements. Alberuni and his contributions.

3. Ghaznavides at Lahore

Lahore as a centre of art and Literature. Downfall of Ghaznavids and re-emergence of minor states.

4. Sultan Shahab-ud-Din Muhammad Ghori

His Indian campigns, Character and achievements, Muizzi Maliks-causes of the defeat of Hindu India.

5. Ilburi Turks

Sultan Qutbuddin Aibak, Sultan Shams-ud-Din Iltutumish, his early difficulties; his achievements as the real founder of Sultanate, relations with caliphate, his successors, Sultan Razia, Nasiruddin Mahmud and his policy, Ghiasuddin Balban, his theory of Kingship, consolidation of Sultanate, Mongol problem, Kaiqubad and the end of Ilburi Turk’s dynasty, slave system as a source of weakness and strength.

6. Khalji Dynasty

Siginificane of Khalji Revolutoin – Feroz Khalji and his character; Sultan Alaudding khalji, his reforms and conquests, Deccan policy; Malik kafur, Qutbuddin Mubarik and end of the khalji Dynasty.

7. Tughluq Dynasty

Ghiasuddin Tughluq: his administration and character: Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq: his character and personality, mixture of two extremes, his plans and their failure, out-break of rebellions, his Deccan policy. Sultan Feroz Shah Tughluq, his military expeditions, administrative reforms, public works, religious policy; Amir Timur’s invasion; End of Tughluq dynasty.

8. Sayyids

Khizar Khan: Character and achievements.

9. Lodhis

Sikandar Lodhi: his administration and religious policy. Ibrahim lodhi and end of the Delhi Sultanate.

10. Contemporary independent Kindoms

Bahmani, Vijaynagar, Sindh, and Kashmir.

11. Downfall of the Sulanate of Delhi

The causes of the downfall of Sultanate of Delhi.

12.   Administration of Delhi Sultanate

Central and Provincial departments, army, land revenue system, and  Judiciary.

13. Social and Cultural Contribution of the Sultans of Delhi

    1. Contributions in Historiography, literature, education, arts and culture, Amir Khusrau and his contributions.
    2. Architecture: Main characteristics of Muslim architecture – important buildings of the period.
    3. Society, economic conditions and commerce.

14. Religious Trends

Role of Ulemas, role of Sufis, Sufi orders (Chistiya & Suharwardia), important Sufis of the period, Bhagti movement, its origin, and impact.

Suggested Readings:

  1. M. Ikram, History of Muslim Civilization in Indo and Pakistan.
  2. M. Ikram, History of Muslim Rule in India.
  3. Abdul Qadir, History of Indo-Pak.
  4. B.M. Habibullah, The Foundation of Muslim Rule in India.
  5. Sir Wolsely Haig, The Cambridge History of India.
  6. H.Qurshi, The Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistan Sub-continent.
  7. H.Qurshi, The Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi.
  8. H.Qurshi, A short history of Pakistan. Vol. II. Edited.
  9. Hussain, J. “A History of the Peoples of Pakistan”, 1998 O.U.P. Karachi.




(1526 to 1857 AD)

1.       South Asia at the advent of Mughals

Socio-political conditions of South Asia at the eve of Mughal invasion; causes of the advent.

2.       Zahir-ud-Din Muhammad Babar

      His early life; invasion on South Asia, first battle of Panipat, foundation of Mughal rule, defeat of Rajput; His character and personality as a literary man, as a statesman and as a general.

3.       Naseer-ud-Din Muhammad Humayun

His early life, capture of throne and conquests, his reforms; administration and public works. His achievements as ruler.

4.    Sher Shah Suri and the establishment of Sur Dynasty

His early life, capture of throne and conquests, his reforms; administration and public works. His achievements as a ruler; successors of Sher shah and the end of Suri Dynasty.

5.       Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar

His early life, accession to throne, second battle of Panipat; Bairam khan and his downfall; petticoat government; conquests in the north and the Rajput policy; penetration in the south and Deccan policy; religious trends and his religious policy; Din-e-Elahi, administration, mansabdari system; his land revenue system. His character and achievements.

6.       Nuruddin Muhammad Jahangir

His accession; Khusru’s revolt; conquests in the North and South. Noor Jehan and her marriage with Jahangir; her ascendancy; Qandhar question; revolts of prince Khurram and Mahabat Khan. His character and personality estimates. Patronage towards painting.

7.       Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jehan

His early life, marriage with Mumtaz Mahal, his accession to throne, golden period of the Mughal Rule. His central Asian Policy; Deccan Policy. War of succession between his sons; causes of the success of Aurangzeb and the failure of Dara Shikoh. His character and achievements as an architect king.

8.       Mohiyuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir

His early life, accession and theory of kingship; his military expeditions, Rajput Policy, Deccan policy, his policy towards Marhatas and Sikhs, his religious policy. His character and achievements.

9.   Period of Decadence: Later Mughals

Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire, Rise of Europen powers in India, invasion of Nadir Shah of Iran and Ahmad Shah Abdali of Afghanistan.

10. Growth of Independent Principalities

Punjab, Bengal, Ouadh, Deccan, and Mysore.

11. Socio-Cultural and Economic Condition Under the Mughals

Contributions in the field of art, architecture and literature; society; commerce; industry; and economic developments.

12. Religious Movements

“Mahdevi” movement; Muslim Tasawwuf, Qadria and Naqshbanddia order; Hazrat Mujaddid Alf-i-Sani and his services towards revival of Islam. Shah Walaullah and his contributions. Faraizi Movement. Tehrik-e-Mujahidin.

13. Rise and expansion of English East India Company—war of independence 1857.

Suggested Readings:

  1. M. Ikram, History of Muslim Civilization in India and Pakistan.
  2. M. Ikram, History of Muslim Rule in India.
  3. Syed Abdul Qadir, History of Indo-Pak.
  4. Zubair, History of Indo-Pak.
  5. H. Qureshi, The Administration of Mughal Empire.
  6. Sir Wolseley Haig, The Cambridge History of India.
  7. H. Qureshi, The Muslim Community of the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
  8. H. Qureshi, A short history of Pakistan, Vol. III.
  9. Rashid, “later Muslims”.
  10. Islam R. “Sufism in South Asia” 2002, OUP, Karachi.
  11. Khan, Gulfishan, “Indian Muslims Perception of the West.




 (1857 to 1947 AD)

The War of Independence 1857 AD

      Its causes, events, and impacts. Failure of the War of Independence and its effects especially on the Muslims. Early constitutional developments.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement. His social, political, educational, and religious contributions to the Muslims of South Asia. Urdu- Hindi controversy and the Two Nation Theory.

Religioius and Educational Movements and Institutions of the

Dar-ul-Aloom Deoband, Tehrik-i-Mujahudeen, Hur Movement, Tehrik-i-Rashmi Romal, Nadva-tul-Aulema Lucknow, Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam, Muhammad literary Bengal, Sindh Madrasa-tal-Islam Karachi, and Islamia College, Peshwar.

Hindu Revivalist Movements

Arya Samaj, Barhamosamaj, Theosophical society, Ramakrishana  Mission.

Indian National Congress

Formation of Indian National Congress College, Indian Council Act-1892, limitations and impact on Muslims.

Syed Ameer Ali

His early life, central Muhammadan Association. His services for the Muslims of South Asia.

Urdu Defence Movement

Urdu Defence Movement, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk and Nawab Vaqar-ul-Mulk and the formation of Muhammadan Political Organization.

Partition of Bengal-1905

Partition of Bengal; its causes, Swadeshi movement and revitalization of Hindu nationalism and its impacts on Muslims. Hindu reaction to partition of Bengal and its annulment.

Formation of All India Muslim League- 1906

Simla Deputation and its proposals. Formation of Muslim league; its objectives and evolution.

Minto–Morley Reforms 1909

Salient features of Minto—Morley Reforms of 1909.

Hindu Muslim Unity

Lucknow Pact 1916, Rowlatt Act, Jalianwala Bagh Tragedy, Ali Brothers and the Khalifat Movements, M.K. Gandhi, Tehrik-i-Mawalat. Movement for the separation of Sindh from the Bombay Presidency.

Dyarchy system and its failure

The Government of India Act-1919, dyarchy and its failure.

The Constituional Developments upto 1935

Delhi proposals, simon commission; Nehru Report, Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen points; Allama Iqbal’s Allabad address of 1930, simon commission report, the first, second and third Round Table Conferences in London, communal award and Poona pact.

Government of India Act-1935

The introduction of Government of India Act-1935; its salient features and impacts on India.

Congress Ministries

General Elections of 1937, formation of Congress Ministries in various provinces of India and their attitude towards Muslims, Pirpur report, Sharif report, C.P. mey congressi raj (Hakim Asrar Ahmad report).

Demand for Separate Muslim State

Kheri Brothers proposals—1917, Ch. Rahmat Ali’s proposals of 1933, Sindh Provincial Muslim League demand of 1938 for separate Muslim state.

The Demand for Pakistan: 1940-47

Lahore Resolution – 1940, August offer, Cripp’s proposal of 1942, Quit India Movement—1942, Gandhi Jinnah talk—1944, Wavell plan—1945 and the Shimla conference, General Elections of 1945-46, Cabinet Mission Plan-1946, Direct Action Day, formation of interim government, London meeting of December 1946, Mr. Attlee’s announcement of Februrary—1947, Lord Mountbatten and 3rd June plan, Indian Independence Act. – 1947, Radcliffe Award, emergence of Pakistan as a sovereign Muslim state.

Quaid-I-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah

His life and services for the cause of Pakistan. His character and personality estimate.

Suggested Readings:

  • H. Qureshi, The Struggle for Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Ali, Emergence of Pakistan.
  • Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Early Phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  • Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Middle Phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  • Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad, Final Phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  • Muhammad Saleem Ahmad, The All India Muslim League upto 1919 A.D.
  • K. Aziz, Making of Pakistan.
  • Waheed-ul-Zaman, Towards Pakistan.
  • H. Qureshi, A short history of Pakistan Vol.IV.
  • Khalid bin Sayeed, Formative Phase.
  • Stanely Walpert, Jinnah of Pakistan.
  • Abdul Hameed, Muslim Separation in India.

History of Pakistan

Paper- B

1947 to 2005 AD

Early Period

Introduction and background of Pakistan. Early difficulties and problems with especial emphasis on Kashmir issue and Canal Water Dispute. Quaid-I-Azam as first Governor General.

Political and Constitutional Development Formative Phase (1947-58)

The Objective Resolution 1949, Basic Principles committee’s report Muhammad Ali Bogra’s formula. Dissolution of the first constituent assembly, formation of one unit; constitution of 1956; its main features.

Military Rule:(1958-1971)

The Basic democracy, the constitution of 1962; its working and failure.

Ayub khan’s Regime; growth of Industrialization, agricultural reforms Indo-Pakistan War 1965.

Yahya Khan’s regime; his Legal Frame Work Order, general elections of 1970, Awami Leagues six points programme, the political crises, Indo-Pakistan War 1971, causes for the separation of East Pakistan, fall of Dhaka.

Revival of Democracy in Pakistan(1972-77)

Z.A. Bhutto’s regime; policies, reforms 1973 constitution and its first seven Amendments.

Failure of parliamentary democracy in Pakistan, circumstances leading to the impostion of Martial Law in 1977.

Military Rule: (1977-88)

Zia-ul-Haq’s policies and efforts at the Islamization of laws. Restoration of parliamentary system, referendum, elections of 1985. RCO and the 8th Amendment, Junejo’s ministry, dissolution of the assembly.

Restoration of Democratic Governments

                Constitutional amendments.

The functioning of democratic governments and their failure. Pakistan in 21 century, its political and economic problems, and its role in world politics.

Political Parties

Pakistan Muslim League, Awami League, Jamat-i-Islami, Jamiat-ul-Islam, Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan, National Awami Party; Pakistan Peoples Party.

Vested Interest Groups

Feudals; sectarian parties, military and civil bureaucracy, ethnicity.

Economic Development

Land reforms, industrial development, nationalization de-nationalization and privatization.

Foreign Policy

            Basic principles of Pakistan’s foreign policy.

Relations with immediate neighbors: India, Afghanistan, Iran, China and Central Asia.

Relations with Muslim world: Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iraq and Indonesia, Malaysia.

Relations with super powers: U.S.A., Russia,

Defense pacts: SEATO, CENTO, Economic pacts: RCD, ECO, SAARC, OIC.

                Relations with the European Union.

                Pakistan’s Stand on war against terrorism.

Human Rights in Pakistan

                Human Rights, gender issue, child labour, minorities.

Suggested Readings:

  1. H. Qureshi, A Short History of Pakistan.
  2. Khalid bin Saeed, The Political System of Pakistan.
  3. W. Chaudhry, Constitutional Development in Pakistan.
  4. Inayatullah, Economic Problems of Pakistan.
  5. M. Burke, Foreign Policy of Pakistan.
  6. Safdar Mahmood, Pakistan: History and Politics.
  7. Ayub Khan, Friends not Masters.
  8. Rafiq Afzal, Political Parties in Pakistan.
  9. Hasan Askari, Military & Politics in Pakistan.
  10. Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the 20th
  11. Stanly worlpert, Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan.
  12. Jalal, Ayesha “The Sole Spokesman.”
  13. “Sovereignty and the Self”.
  14. Ziring, L. “Ayub Khan Era”
  15. Ali, Shaukat “Pakistan-A Religion—Political History”.



French Revolution

Background, causes of the French Revolution, role of French Philosopher, estate general, work of the National Assembly, the role of  3rd estate, England’s reaction, parties in the Legislative Assembly, the fall of monarchy, European coalition against France and the War, the second and the third partition of Poland, the reign of Terror and the end of terror.  The France and Europe from 1793-1795.

Napoleon Bonaparte

The rise of Napoleon to power, Napoleon as emperor, statesman and  warrior.  His reforms, Napoleon and Europe, the continental system, Wars and the downfall.

Vienna Settlement and Concert of Europe

Treaty of Chaumont, first & second treaties of Paris, treaty of Vienna, alliances, congress system and failure of congress system, the British leadership.

Europe 1815-1848

The age of Metternich 1814 to 1848.  The Forces of change and progress, nationalism, democracy, liberalism, socialism.  Restoration of Bourbons in France, the revolution of 1830, Louis Philip Revolution of 1848 in France and effects in Europe.  Subsequent revolution in Austria/Hungary, German and Italian States.

The Industrial Revolution in Europe

Scientific discoveries and its impacts.

The Eastern Question (1820-1878)

Background, the Greek revolt 1820 to independence 1832, the Crimean war 1853 to 1856, the CZAR, Alexander 11 of Russia, Napoleon 111,peace treaty of Paris – Pan Slavisim.  The Russo-Turkish war 1877. The treaty of San-stefano the congress and the treaty of Berlin 1878.

Unification of Italy

Background – Revolutionary movements in Italy. The role of Mazziani, Cavour and Garibaldi in the unification of Italy. Napoleon III and Italian unity. Foreign policy of Italy after the unification.

Unification of Germany

Background Napoleon and Germany rise of Prussia, Zollverein, Revolution 1848 and Germany. Rise of Bismark and his role as the architect of German unification. Wars with Denmark, Austria and France. Domestic and foreign policy of Bismark since 1870.

The Growth of Colonisation

Different forms of colonization; British colonial policy and expansion. The French colonial policy and expansion. The French in North Africa. Suez canal. Anglo French control in Egypt, Russia in the Caucasus and Turkistan. Anglo Russian results of colonial Development.

Road to the First World War

System of alliances and counter alliances. Drickairerbund, Austro-German alliance 1879, triple alliance 1882, the formation of dual alliance 1891-93; Anglo—Japanese alliance, French—British and Russo British Entente.

William ll’s accession, personal rule, militarism and Foreign Policy- third republic in France, difficulties and work. The second phase of eastern question. Russo – Turkish war 1877. Congress of Berlin. importance and effects. partition and effects. Partition of Africa. European intervention in China, Boxer Revolt, Russo Japanese war 1902. Balkan wars.

First World War

Causes of the World War-I events, USA’s entry into the War, Wilson’s 14 points, the choice of the Turks, War in the Middle east, Britain’s Middle East Policy during the war. Balfour declaration, defeat of Germany, Austria and Turkey, the effects of the War.

Peace Treaties and League of Nations

The treaty of Versailles—1919. The treaties of St. German and Trianon. The Treaty of Severes, the treaty of Lausanne.

The covenant of the League of Nations; its role and causes.

The political developments in Europe between two World Wars.

Marxism and Soviet Union

 The Russian Revolution 1917, Lenin, the third international treaty 1919, civil war in Russia, Trotsky, Stalin, the Russian foreign policy between the two World Wars.

Italy and Fascism

Effects of the war on Italy, Mussolini’s rise to power, Fascist party and principles, Italy’s Foreign policy between two world wars.

Germany and Nazi – ism

Germany from the treaty of Versailles to Hitler, origin of Nazi-ism, “Mein Kamph”, Hitler’s rise to power, domestic and foreign Policy of Hilter.

Spanish Civil War

Involvement of foreign powers. The emergence of dictatorial rule under General Franco.

France and England

Collapse of third republic, foreign policy of France between the two World Wars.

Chamberlain’s Policy of appeasement. Economic Depression of 1929 and England. Stability of British Common Wealth. Foreign Policy of Britain during the two world wars.

The Second World War

Causes, events, and effects of the War. The peace settlement and the establishment of UNO.

Suggested Readings:

  1. R, Palmer, A History of Modern World.
  2. David, Thomson, Europe Since Napolean.
  3. Temperley, Grant, A.G., Europe in the Ninteenth and Twenteeth century.
  4. A leeds, European History: 1789-1914.
  5. A Craig, Europe since 1815.
  6. N. Modlicot, W.N., Bismark and Modern Germany.
  7. Stephen J. Lee, History of Europe.
  8. Raghumbher Dayal, A Textbook of Modern Europe in History.
  9. Ikram Ali Malik, A Textbook on the History of Modern Europe 1789-1919, 1984, Lahore.
  10. K. Derry, and Jarman, The European World 1870—1945.
  11. A. Leeds, European History 1789—1914.
  12. Nicoloson, A History of Modern Europe 1889-1917.
  13. J.P. Taylor, A Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848-1918.
  14. L. Peacock, A History of Modern Europe 1789-1968.
  15. Perry, U.K., Modern European History, 1989.
  16. W. South Gate, A Text book of European History 1643-1948, Rot. 1958.



 International Relations and Organizations

1945 to 2005 AD

International Organizations:-

United Nations organisation

  1. Aims, objectives and Principles of U.N.O.
  2. The work of the U.N.O.
  3. An estimate of U.N.O.

Post World War II Diplomacy:-

    1. Super power relations and the Cold war.
    2. The Truman doctrine.
    3. The Marshal plan.
    4. Korean war.
    5. Vietnam war.
    6. Middle East crises: Israel, Palestine and Suez.

International Treaties

    1. NATO
    2. WARSAW
    3. CENTO
    4. SEATO
    5. RCD
    7. OIC
    8. SAARC

The Third World

  1. The emergence of China as a world power in international politics.
  2. Latin America and Southern Africa in world affairs.
  3. Far East, China and Japan in world affairs.
  4. South Asia in world affairs.

The Foreign Policies of the Great Power

  1. The nature of the foreign relations among the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France and China.
  2. The problems of the Muslim world.
  3. The 1973 Vietnam cease fire agreements.
  4. Russian intervention in Afghanistan.
  5. Down fall of Soviet Union.
  6. Globalization and its impact.
  7. War against Iraq and Afghanistan.

Recommended Books:

1)       Morgenthau, Hans J. ,  Politics Among Nations, New York:  Knpf 1963 (or latest ed.)

2)       Mclellan, David S.,     The Cold War in Transition. New York, Macmillan, 1966.

3)       Macridis, Roy C., Foreign Policy in World politics, Englewoud Cliffs, N.J. Printice Hall, 1972.

4)       Palmer, Norman D.   International Relations London:& Perkins, Harward.,  Stevens, 1963 ( or Latest ed.).

5)       Crowley, D.W. The Background to current affairs,  Ferozesons, Lahore.

6)       Leonard, L.L.  International Organization, New York, 1951.

7)       Northedge, F.S.  Descent from power British Foreign policy,  London, 1974.

8)       _____________   The Foreign policies of the power, New York: Praceger, 1968.

9)       John, Spainier, American policy since world War II,   New York, 1973.

10)     Thomson, Jah.The Rise of Modern Asia.      


History (ELECTIVE)

Appendix ‘A

(Outlines of Tests) 

(Old Course) Upto 2nd Annual examination, 2006

B.A. History syllabus shall consist of 2 papers, each of 100 marks. Students shall be asked to choose any one paper from each of the following two (A & B) groups. In such paper there will be objective type questions of 20 marks.

Group ‘A’

Paper A   (i)            History of Pakistan Movement 1858-1947.

  • History of Europe 1789-1871.
  • History of Islam (Holy Prophet to the Pious Caliphate).

Paper ‘B’

  • History of Pakistan 1947-1988.
  • International Relations 1871-1945.
  • Modern Muslim (Arab World 1919-1970).

Appendix ‘B’

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

Groups ‘A’

Paper-I History of Pakistan Movement 1858-1947.

Failure of the War of Independence of its effects, Condition of the Muslims. Government of India Act 1858. Indian Councils Act 1861. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the Aligarh Movement, His political and educational services. Indian National Congress. Syed Ameer Ali and the Central National Muhammadan Association. India Councils Act 1892, limitations and Impact on Muslims. Urdu-Hindi controversy, Mohsin ul Mulk and formation of Mohammadan Political Organization. Partition of Bengal, Hindu reaction and annulment. Simla Deputation, Separate Electorate. Formation of All India Muslim League, its objects and early history, role of Nawab Saleemullah Khan, Waqar-ul-Mulk and Sir agha Khan Minto-Morley Reforms of 1909 Lucknow Pact, its importance and drawbacke. The Government of Indian Act, 1919. Dyarchy and its failure. The Rowalatt Act Jalianwala Bagh Tragedy. Khlafat Movement, Ali Brothers and their role. The Constitution Problems of ‘1920’s, Simon Commission, Nehru Report, Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points, Round Table Codforences, Communal Award and Poona Pct, Government of Indi Act 1935. Congress Ministries and their attitude towards Muslims Pirpur Report. Evolution of the idea of a separte Muslim State, Iqbal’s Allabad Address. The ideology of Pakistan. Struggle for the Pakistan: Lahore Resolution 1940, Different Proposals for the Partition of the India, Cabinet Mission Plan; Elections of 1945-46, Third June Plan, Simla Conference Indian Independence Act 1947, Radcliffe Award. Services of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah for the cause of Pakistan.

Recommended Books:

  1. Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi, Struggle for Pakistan, Urdu Language.
  2. Jamil-ud-Din Ahmad.
  3. Early Phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  4. Middle phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  5. Final Phase of Struggle for Pakistan.
  6. Ch. Mohammad Ali, Emergence of Pakistan, Urdu.

Paper II:

History of Europe 1789-1871.

Causes of the French Revolution. Convening of the Estates General. Work of National Assembly. Napoleon Bonaparte, reforms, continental system, wars, downfall, Congress of Vienna (1815), Concert of Europs, Holy Alliance, Mother Restoration of Bourbons in France. Revolution of 1830, efferts in Europe. Louis Poppe, internal and external policies, downfall. Revolutions in Austria, Hungary, general and Italian states easter questions, Greek War of Independence, Crimean War of Aleander II of Russia, Napoleon – III. Unification of Italy, roleof cavour, Mazz, Garibaldi. Unification of Germany role of Bismatch.

Recommended Books:

  1. Malik Ikram Ali: A Text book on the History of Modern Europe 1789-1919, Lahore.
  2. Thomson, David: Europe since Napolean, London 1965.
  3. Grant & Temperley: Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
  4. Knapton, B.J. & Derry, T.K: Europe 1815-1914.
  5. Leeds, C.A: European History: 1789-1914.

Paper-III: History of Islam: Pre-Islamic Arabia to 661 A.D.

  1. Pre-Islam Arabia, political, social and religious conditions, the City State Mecca.
  2. Early life of the Prophet (PBUH).
  3. The Prophet PBUH at Madina the battles of Badr, Uhd —— .
  4. Hazrat abu Bakr, his early life and sacrifices for the cause of Islam, his election as Caliph, the movement of apostasy, rise of false proposed the refusal of some of the Arab tribes to pay the zakat, the consolidation of center, the conquest of Iraq, relations with Iran, Syria, and Byzantine, the compilation of the Quran, hischaracter and achievements.
  5. Hazrat Umar bin-al-Khattab, his early life and—-.
  6. Hazrat Uthman, his early life acceptance of Islam, his —- during the life of the Prophet. Abu Bakr and the Usman, his —– as Caliph I conquest of North Africa. Cyprus, Tabaristan, Tukharistan and Makran, Abdullah bin Suba and the Sabite movement, opposition of Uthman, his martyrdom and its consequences, his services to the cause of Islam, his character and achievement.
  7. Hazrat Ali, his early life, his role during the life time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, Usman and Uthman, his intallation as Caliph, the battle of the Camel, relations with Amir —- the Battle of safin, the —– their doctrines and role in Islamic History, Hazrat Ali’s martyrdom, his character and achievement. — Hasan as Caliph his —–.
  8. Administration and structure of Government under the pious calipha, military, revenue system and judiciary under the pious caliph, the status of the dhimmis and the ‘Mawali, the social life of the Muslims, Salient features and the Orthodox Caliphate.

 Recommended Books:

  1. Syed Amir Ali: The History of the Saracens, Lahore.
  2. Hussaini, S.A.Q: Arab Administration, Lahore, 1949.
  3. Wellhausen, J. The Arab Kingdom and its Fall, Beirut, 1963.


Group ‘B’

 Paper 1: History of Pakistan (1947-1988)

Early Period:

 Introduction and background of Pakistan.

Early difficulties and Problems: Kashmir and the Canal.

Water disputes.

Quaid-e-Azam as Governor General.

Political and Constitutional Development:

The Objective Resolution 1949, Basic Principles Committee’s Report. Muhammad Ali Bobra’s Formula, Dissolution of the First Constituent Assembly, Formation of one Unit. Constitution of 1956 Main features. The Basic Democracy, The Constitution of 1962, its working and failure. The Constitution of 1973, Amendments in the Constitution, 8th Amendments. Parliamentary Democracy in Pakistan, its failure. Ayub Regime: growth of Industrialization, Indo-Pak War 1965. Legal Frame-work order under Yahya’s regime, The Election of 1970, Awami League’s six points programme. The Political Crisis, Indo-Pak War 1971. Fall of Dacca, Bhutto’s regime, and circumstances leading to Martial Law in 1977, Zia-ul-Haq’s policies and Islamizationof Laws. Re-establishment of Parliamentary system Referendum, Elections of 1985. Junejo’s ministry, Disssolution of the Assembly Caretaker Government and the elections of 1988 Political Parties, Pakistan Muslim League, Awami League.Khudae Khidmatgar, Jamat-e-Islami, Jamiat-ul-Ulema Islam, Jamiat-ul-Ulama-e-Pakistan, National Awami Party, Pakistan Peoples Party. Economic Development: Land Reforms, Industrial development and Nationalizations. Foreign Policy, Relations with immediate neighbours India, Afghanistan, Iran and China. Relations with Muslim World: Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iraq and Indinesia, Relations with Super Powers; U.S.A. USSR. Defence Pacts, Seato, Baghdad Pact, Cento. Economic Pacts. RCD, ECO.

Recommended Books:

  1. H. Qureshi: A Short History of Pakistan.
  2. Khalid Bin Saeed., The Political System of Pakistan.
  3. Muhammad Ayub Khan: Friends Not Masters.
  4. S.M. Burke: Foreign Policy of Pakistan.
  5. G.W. Chaudhry: Constitutional Development in Pakistan.
  6. Inayatullah: Economic Problems of Pakistan.

Group ‘B’

 Paper II: International Relations 1871-1945.

Bismarck’s foreign policy after 1871, System of Alliances, William ii accession, Personal rule, militarism and foreign policy. Third Republic in France, difficulties and work Eastern Question, Russo-Turkist War (1877), Congress of Berlin, importance and effects. Partition of Africa. European intervention in China, Boxer Revolt, Russo-Japanese War (1902).Balkan Wars. Causes of World War I important events and results. League of Nations, Wilson’s Fourteen Points, Covenant and organization, peace-keeping activities, limitations and failure. Disarmament Conferences and their results. Occupation and mandate system in Middle East. Weimar Republic, difficulties, work Rise of Nazism, Economic Depression (1929), Era of dictatorship. Hitler, Pan-Germanism.Mussolini in Italy. Russia under Lenin and Stalin. Foreign Policy of West European Powers, Britain, France and U.S.A. World War-II, important events and immediate results.

 Recommended Books:

  1. Malik Ikram Ali: A Text-book on History of Modern Europe 1789-1919.
  2. Derry, T.K: Europe 1815-1914.
  3. Derry, T.K. and Jerman, T.L: The European World 1870-1945.
  4. Taylor, A.J.P: from Napoleaon to Stalin.
  5. Carr, E.H. International relations between the two World Wars.
  6. Leeds, C.A. European History 1789-1914.
  7. Lowe, N. Mastering Modern World History.
  8. Palmer, N.D. and Parking. H.C: International Relations.
  9. Armstrong, D: The rise of International Organizations.
  10. Western, J.B: The End of European Prinney, 18761—-
  11. Thomson: Rise of Modern

Group ‘B’

 Paper-III:             Modern Muslim (Arab World) 1919-1970:

The State of ARAB WORLD immediately after World War. Egypt: Saad Zaghlol and the rise of the WAFD party Struggle for freedom, British Declaration of 1922 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936, Egypty in World War-II. Anglo-Egyptian differences on Sudan and Suez; Military revolution Najeeb as President. Akhwan Muslimeen AND its role, Jamal Abd-ul-Nasir and his policies (Pan Arabian).

Independence of Sudan, Aswan Dam project, Suez Crisis (1956), Relations with Western Countries and U.S.S.R. Arab Israel WAR of 1967. Evaluation of Nasir’s achievements and policies, Anwar us Saadat, War with Israel (1973) and Camp David Agreement.

Saudi Arabia: Hussain Sharif of MECCA and his revolt against Turkey during World War I, Partition of Arabia into British and French protectorates Hussain’s rule in Hejaz; Saudi Dynasty background and conflict with Hussain government . Adul Azizs conquest of Hejaz, achievements, internal and external policies Discovery of oil and its impact. Relations with the West specially with USA. Role in World War, II. King Saud internal reforms, relations with Britian, and Arab States.

King Faisal, his policies interest in Muslim Worlds, policy towards Israel’s aggression.

Palestine: The land and its historical importance. Zoinist Movement,Balfour Declaration, Jew Settlemens. Creation of Israel State Arab-Israel War of 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973.

Syria: French Protectorate, Revolt of 1952. The Constitutional Assembly, Political Activities. Agreement of 1936, Freedom movement during World War, II. Independence of Syria. Politics after World War, II. Military Coups, Restoration of Constitutional Government, Formation of U.A.R. and separation from it. Ba’ath Party’s rule and its relations with USSR.

Iraq: King Faisal, Anglo-Iraq Treaty (1922) and reaction against its Protocol of 1932, Constitutions of 1924 Kurd Revolt, Musal Problem. Independence of Iraq, Estimate of King Faisal, Chazi-bin Faisal and General Siddiqi: Iraq during World War, II, Anglo-Iraq Treaty of 1946, King Faisal II, Noori-us-Saeed: Beghdad Pact Anglo-Iraq Treaty of 1955, Military Revolution (1958) Abdul Karim Qasim, Abd-us-Salam Arif and Abdur Rehman Arif, Saddam Hussain’s rise.

Jordan: Establishment as a separate state. King Abdullah, Anglo-Jordan Treaty of 1941. Indepdence (1946). War with Israel 1947. Shah Hussain II. Shah Talal War against Israel (1967). Jordan’s relations with Western powers.

Lebanon: French Protectorate, Struggle for Independence, emergence as an independent state, relations with the West and Arab World. Internal Problems: Religious divisions and Civil War.

Recommended Books:

  1. Lanczowski, George: Middle East in World Affairs.
  2. Kirk, G.E: A Short History of Middle East.


Appendix ‘A’

(Outlines of Tests)

Paper :  History of Islam from the Holy Prophet to 1258 (Excluding the Provincial dynasties)    Marks  100

Appendix ‘B’

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

Paper :    History of Islam from the Holy Prophet to 1258 (Excluding the Provincial Dynasties)

Books Recommended:-



Tarikh-I-Islam  (Urdu)


Inayat Ullah

 Tarikh-I-Islam (Urdu)


Muhammad Iqbal

Daastan-I-Islam (Urdu)


Abdul Qadir and Shuja-ud-Din

Tarikh-I-Islam, Lahore  (Urdu)


Fayyaz Mahmud

History of Islam, Lahore.