Political Science BA Syllabus Sargodha University


Political Science (B.A)

Syllabi and Courses of Reading

Paper A   Principles of Political Science Marks   100

Paper B   Government and Politics in U.K.  U.S.A., Switzerland and Pakistan Marks   100

Grand Total:  200

PAPER A                Principles of Political Science

Political Science

Definition, Scope and Utility of Political Science and approaches to the Study of Political Science

The State:

Definition and Elements; State and Government; State and Society; State and Associations.


Definition; Characteristics; Kinds. Monism versus Pluralism; Islamic Concept of Sovereignty.


(a)    Nature; Kinds; Safeguards. Liberty and Equality; Liberty and Law.

(b)   Definition, Meanings and Kinds of Rights.

Fundamental Human Rights in Islam.

Rights of Non-Muslims in an Islamic State.


Definition; Meaning; Kinds; Sources. Law and Morality. Islamic Concept of Law. Sources of Law in Islam. Importance of Ijtehad.

Organization of Modern State:

(a)    (1)            Democracy: Nature; Attributes; reconditions.

          (2)            Islamic Concept of Democracy.

          (3)            Dictatorship; Kinds and Features.

 (b)            Unitary and Federal Systems.

 (c)            Parliamentary and Presidential Systems.

Structure of  Government:     

Executive. Legislature and Judiciary.

Political Participation:           

Elections and Electorate:

(a)  Adult and Restricted Suffrage. Methods of Voting. Direct Legislation: Referendum, Initiative, Plebiscite and Recall. Qualifications of Voters and Candidates in an Islamic Policy. Role of an elected Representative.

    • in a Modern Secular State.
    • In an Islamic state.

Role of Elected Representatives.

(b) Free Elections and its Pre-requisites. Direct and Indirect elections.  Electoral Districts. Representation of Minorities. Proportional Representation. Functional Representation.

Political Dynamics:

  • Political Parties: Types, Functions and Roles.
  • Interest Groups: Types, Role in Modern Policy, Methods of Political Action.
  • Public Opinion: Definition. Development of the Concept. Public Opinion Polls. Methods of Measurements.

Theories Regarding the Nature of the State:

Idealist View. Utilitarian View. Socialism, Communism, Fascism. Welfare Concept of State. Comparison of Western and Islamic Concepts.

Books Recommended

Rodee, Anderson: Introduction to Political Science and Christol

Muhammad Asad: Principles of State and Government in Islam.

Muhammad Sarwar: Muarif-e-Siyasiat (Urdu)

Farooq Akhtar Najib: Siyasat-o-Riasat (Urdu)

PAPER B      Government and Politics in U.K. U.S.A., Switzerland and Pakistan

 (Note:      The paper will be divided into the following two parts consisting of 60 and 40 marks respectively)


United Kingdom:

(a) Nature and  Evolution to the British Constitution; its Sources and Salient Features.

(b) Structure of the Government:

(i) Kingship; its Role and Reasons for its Survival.

(ii) Cabinet: Features and Role. Cabinet , Ministry and Privy Council.

(iii) Parliament: Composition and Powers; Procedure of Law making. Supremacy of the Parliment.

(iv)  Judiciary: Organization and Jurisdiction; Rule of Law.

(c) Civil Service; Local Self government; Political Parties.

United States

(a)       Constitution: Growth, Nature and Salient Features.

(b)       Federal System: Division of Power in Theory and Practice.

(c)       Presidency: Theory and Practice.

(d)       Congress; Composition, Powers, Procedure of Law making, Role of Committees in the Congress.

(e)       Federal Judiciary: Organization and Jurisdiction. Judicial Review.

(f)        Separation of Powers.

(g)       Political Parties.


  • History of the Development of the Constitution.
  • Major Features of the Constitution.
  • The Federal Executive.
  • The Federal Legislature.
  • The Cantons in the Swiss Political System.
  • Direct Democracy.

Islamic Republic of Pakistan:

(a)            Ideological Basis of Pakistan.

(b)            Constitutional Development since 1947.

(c)            A detailed study of the Government System under 1973 Constitution.

Books Recommended:

I.H. Qureshi: Struggle for Pakistan.

Mercridis and Ward:  Modern Political Systems.

S.M.Ikram: Muslim India and the Birth of Pakistan.

Ogg and Zink:Modern Foreign Governments.

Syed Hasan Riaz:  Pakistan Na Guzeer Tha (Urdu)

Muhammad Sarwar:  Jadeed Hukomatain (Urdu)

A.C. Kapur,Select Modern Constitutions.

Appadoral, The Substance of Politics (Selection on Switzerland), Oxford.


 (Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

 Total Marks: 100

 Paper:   Political Section                 

                 Section ‘A’ Political Theory                                                           60

                 Section ‘B’ Constitution of Pakistan                                            40

Paper:     Political Science:-

Section A:       Political Theory:

  1. The Nature and Scope of Political Science, its relations to other Social Sciences, fields of specialists within Political Science; Political Theory; Political Dynamics; International Relations; Comparative Governments and Public Administration Goals and uses of Political Science and the Problems of the study of Political Science in the modern times.
  2. The State: Its essential elements, nature and definition, distinction between state society, Government, nation and nationality.
  3. Theories of the State:
    • Theories concerning origin of the State (briefly): purpose and end of the state.
    • Concepts of Sovereignty, its Meaning and Attributes, including the Islamic Concepts of Sovereignty.
    • The Functions of the State.
  1. The State and the Individual:
    • Rights; Theory of Natural Rights; Political and Civil Rights; Rights and Responsibilities.
    • Liberty, its meaning, Liberty and Equality, Adjustment of Liberty and sovereignty.
    • Law, Definition and Nature, the Sources of Law, Law and Morality, Law and Opinion, the Administration of Justice, and judiciary.
  1. Organization of the State.
    • Unitary
    • Federal, distribution of powers in the Federal System.
    • Other (Confederations, Unions, etc)
  1. Forms of Government and their characteristics.
    • Monarchy, absolute and Constitutional Democracy and Concept of Democracy public in Islam.
    • Representative Government – Parliamentary and Presidential Systems Separation of Power.
    • Dictatorship – Characteristics and Various Types.
  1. Election and the Party System.
    • Political Parties – Definition, Party functions. Types of Party System, Two party system and Multi-party system
    • Director Legislation: Initiative, Referendum, Recall and Plebiscite.
  2. Modern Political Thought.
  3. Individualism, Socialism, Communism, Idealism, Fascism.

Section B:             Constitution of Pakistan

  • Salient features of the Constitution of Pakistan
  • Presidency 
  • National Assembly; Provincial Government; Judicial System; Fundamental Rights; Basic Democracies.

Books Recommended:-


Rodee, Anderson and Christal

Introduction to Political Science, New York: McGraw-Hill, (lates ed.)


C.E.M. Joad

Modern Political Theory, London: Oxford University Press, Amen House, E.C. 4, 1960


Roger, H. Saltau

An Introduction to Politics, New York: Longman Green and Co. New York


H.J. Laski

A Grammer of Politics London: Allen and Unwin.


R.M. Maciver

The Modern State, Oxford University Press.


H.J. Laski

State in Theory and Practice, London: Allen and Unwin.



Recent Political Thought, New York:



M. Rafi Anwar

Presidential Government in Pakistan.


Z.A. Sulari

Politicians and Ayub.