Sociology BA/BSc Syllabus Sargodha University


Sociology (B.A)

 (Syllabi and Courses of Reading)

Paper A: General Sociology Marks: 100

Paper B: Sociological Theory, Research and Social Problem. Marks 100      

Grant Total:      200

Paper A:

General Sociology

Note:    (All the topics should be covered in the context of Pakistani Society)


  • Definition of Sociology
  • Subject Matter
  • Relationship of Sociology with other Social Sciences: Political Sciences, Psychology, Economics, History and Anthropology.
  • Utility and application of Sociology

Social Groups:-

  • Definition
  • Types of Groups: Primary Groups, Secondary Groups, In Groups, Out Groups, Formal Groups and Informal Groups.
  • Distinction between Social Groups and Social Categories.
  • Other Related Concepts: Reference Groups, Locality Groups, Society.

Social Interaction:-

  • Definition
  • Importance of Social Interaction.
  • Processes of Social Interaction:  Cooperation, Competition, Conflict, Assimilation, Accommodation and Acculturation

Social Norms:-

  • Definition
  • Types of Social Norms: Folkways, Mores (Amar-o-Nehi), Laws.
  • Other Related Concepts: Deviancy, Social Control, Social Sanctions, Toboos, Values and Beliefs.

Status and Role:-

  • Definition
  • Types of Status and Role: Achieved and Ascribed.
  • Related Concepts: Role Conflict and Role Playing.


  • Definition
  • Elements of Culture: Traits, Patterns, Complexes, Ethos.
  • Types of Culture: Non-Material and Material, Ideal and Real.
  • Cultural Uniformity and Cultural Variability.
  • Other Related Concepts:  Sub-Culture, Cultural Relativism and Ethnocontrism

Socialization and Personality:-

  • Definition
  • Personality: Important factors in personality formation including Heredity, Socio-Cultural and Unique Experiences. Interplay of these factor.
  • Socialization: As a Process in Role Taking and Role Playing.
  • Concept of Self: Theories of George Meahd and C.H. Cooley.

Social Stratification:-

  • Defination
  • Caste, Bradari and Class.
  • Social Mobility and its Types and Factors Affecting Mobility.

Social Institutions

  • Definition 
  • Types of Social Institutions: Political, Economic, Religious, Education, Family and Kinship and Recreational.
  • Interrelationship of Social Institutions.

Social and Cultural Change

  • Definition
  • Factors of Socio-Cultural Change.
  • Resistance to Socio-Cultural Change.
  • Socio-Cultural Change in Pakistani Society.

Recommended Books:-


Baqai, M.S.

Social Order in Pakistani Society, Karachi: National Book Foundation, 1975


Chaudhary, Iqbal M.

“Umraniyat”, Lahore:  Aziz Publishers, 1981


Horton Paul B. and Hundhester L.

Sociology, Singapore:  Mc Graw Hill Book Company, 1990


Koening, Samuel

Sociology – An Introduction to the Science of Society, New York:  Bames and Noble Books, Horper and Row Publishers, 1957.


Malik Abdul Hamid

“Ibtidal Moasheryat” Lahore:  Standard Book House, 1994.


Rao N. Shaukar

Sociology, New Delhi:   S. Hand and Company Ltd. 1990.

Paper B:

Sociological Theory and Research:

Social Thought and Sociological Theory:-

  • Meaning and Nature of Social Thought.
  • Meaning and Nature of Sociological Theory:

Brief Introduction to Muslim Social Thought:-

  • Ibn-e-Khaldun, Imam Ghazali and Shah Wali Ullah.

 Sociological Theories:-

  • Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber.

Research Methodology:-

  • Scientific Method and its application to Sociology.
  • Types of Sociological Research: Exploratory, Descriptive and Explanatory / Experimental.
  • Relationship between Theory and Research.
  • Different Methods of Sociological Research: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.

Research Design:-

  • Selection of problem
  • Concepts Literature Review
  • Variables
  • Hypotheses
  • Plan of Work

Universe and Sampling:-

  • Definition of Universe.
  • Definition of Sampling.
  • Types of Sample: Simple Random Sample and Stratified Sample.

Data Collection:-

  • Techniques of Data Collection: Interviewing and Observation.
  • Tools of Data Collection: Interview schedule and questionnaire.

Analysis of Data:-

  • Frequency Distribution and Tabulation.
  • Ratios and Percentages.
  • Measure of Central Tendency (Average): Mean, Median and Mode.

Social Problems:-

  • Overpopulation
  • Illiteracy
  • Crime & Delinquenty
  • Environmental Pollution

Recommended Books:-


Baker, Therese L.

Doing Social Research, New York:   The Free Pess, 1988


Goode, William, J. and Paul K. Hatt:

Methods in Social Research, London:  McGraw Hill, 1952


Horton, B. and Lesie Gerald R. (latest ed)



Young, Pauline V

Scientific Social Surveys and Research, Tokyo:  charles E. Tutritie o.


Ali. Dr. M. Basharat:

Muslims:   The first Sociologists, Lahore:  Maktabai-Miliya.


Taga, Abdul Hameed

“Umrani Nazria wa Tahqeeq”, Lahore:  Islmai Brothers Publiehrs, 1991


Ahmad, Fahmida Masood

“Moashrati Masael Ki Omraniat”, Karachi:  Illmi Kitab Ghar, 1992.


Khalid, Mohammad

Sociological Theory:  A Historial Perpective, Karachi: Kifayat Academy, 1990.


Appendix A

(Outlines of Courses)

Total Marks: 100

Appendix B

(Syllabi and Courses of Reading)



  •  Field of Sociology.
  • Sociology as a science.
  • Sociology and other Social Sciences.

 Basic Concept:-

  • Interaction
  • Norms and Sanctions
  • Status and roles.
  • Values and Beliefs
  • Institutions
  • Social structure
  • Groups
  • Social organizations
  • Society


  •  Elements of Culture.
  • Cultural Processes.

Socialization and Personality Developments:-

  •  Biological foundations of personality.
  • Cultural background of personality.

 Processes and Social Change:

  • Co-operation, competition and conflict.
  • Social Change: determinants, deterrents, and consequences of change.

Text Books:-


Chaudhry Mohammad Iqbal, and

Mushtaq Ahmad Khan

Sociology: An introduction, Lahore, Noorsons, 1966.



Young, Kimbal, and Raymond W. Mack

Sociology and Social Life New York: American Book Company, 1959.